In differentiated thyroid cancer, radioiodine therapy (RIT) is usually carried out after thyroidectomy. Although the potent beneficial effects of radioiodine are undisputed in high-risk patients, much controversy remains surrounding many aspects of RIT in low- and intermediate-risk patients. Other than the indication for postoperative RIT, controversies also include, among others, the intent of RIT and the choice of activity for RIT or the mode of thyroid stimulating hormone stimulation. Furthermore, there is even controversy on the definition of what constitutes low- or intermediate-risk patients. Here the various issues will be discussed and an overview of the different points of view in a number of more prominent national and international guidelines and current literature is presented.
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