Criterion Validity and Applicability of Motor Screening Instruments in Children Aged 5–6 Years: A Systematic Review

Nienke H. van Dokkum, Sijmen A. Reijneveld, Judith Th B.W. de Best, Marleen Hamoen, Sanne C.M. Te Wierike, Arend F. Bos, Marlou L.A. de Kroon*

*Corresponding author for this work

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The detection of motor developmental problems, especially developmental coordination disorder, at age 5–6 contributes to early interventions. Here, we summarize evidence on (1) criterion validity of screening instruments for motor developmental problems at age 5–6, and (2) their applicability. We systematically searched seven databases for studies assessing criterion validity of these screening instruments using the M-ABC as reference standard. We applied COSMIN criteria for systematic reviews of screening instruments to describe the correlation between the tests and the M-ABC. We extracted information on correlation coefficients or area under the receiver operating curve, sensitivity and specificity, and applicability in practice. We included eleven studies, assessing eight instruments: three performance-based tests (MAND, MOT 4–6, BFMT) and five questionnaires (DCD-Q, PQ, ASQ-3, MOQ-T-FI, M-ABC-2-C). The quality of seven studies was fair, one was good, and three were excellent. Seven studies reported low correlation coefficients or AUC (<0.70), four did not report these. Sensitivities ranged from 21–87% and specificities from 50–96%, with the MOT4–6 having the highest sensitivity and specificity. The DCD-Q, PQ, ASQ-3, MOQ-T-FI, and M-ABC-2-C scored highest on applicability. In conclusion, none of the instruments were sufficiently valid for motor screening at age 5–6. More research is needed on screening instruments of motor delay at age 5–6.

Original languageEnglish
Article number781
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jan 2022


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