Avian influenza viruses from the A/H5 A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (GsGd) lineage pose a continuing threat to animal and human health. Since their emergence in 1997, these viruses have spread across multiple continents and have become enzootic in poultry. Additionally, over 800 cases of human infection with A/H5 GsGd viruses have been reported to date, which raises concerns about the potential for a new influenza virus pandemic. The continuous circulation of A/H5 GsGd viruses for over 20 years has resulted in the genetic and antigenic diversification of their hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein, which poses a serious challenge to pandemic preparedness and vaccine design. In the present article, clinical studies on A/H5 influenza vaccination strategies were reviewed to evaluate the breadth of antibody responses induced upon homologous and heterologous primeboost vaccination strategies. Clinical data on immunological endpoints were extracted from studies and compiled into a dataset, which was used for the visualization and analysis of the height and breadth of humoral immune responses. Several aspects leading to high immunogenicity and/or cross-reactivity were identified, although the analysis was limited by the heterogeneity in study design and vaccine type used in the included studies. Consequently, crucial questions remain to be addressed in future studies on A/H5 GsGd vaccination strategies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The research of A.K., M.R. and R.A.M.F. was funded by Biomedical Advanced Research and Authority (BARDA) contract HHSO100201500033C and is funded by NIAID/NIH contract number 75N93021C00014.
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