Daratumumab for patients with myeloma with early or late relapse after initial therapy: subgroup analysis of CASTOR and POLLUX

Andrew Spencer*, Philippe Moreau, Maria Victoria Mateos, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Kenshi Suzuki, Mark David Levin, Pieter Sonneveld, Robert Z. Orlowski, Sung Soo Yoon, Saad Z. Usmani, Katja Weisel, Donna Reece, Tahamtan Ahmadi, Huiling Pei, Wendy Garvin Mayo, Xue Gai, Jodi Carey, J. Blake Bartlett, Robin Carson, Meletios A. Dimopoulos

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

High-risk multiple myeloma (MM) is often defined based on cytogenetic abnormalities, but patients who relapse early after initial therapy are considered a functional high-risk group. In the phase 3 CASTOR and POLLUX studies, daratumumab plus bortezomib/dexamethasone (D-Vd) or lenalidomide/dexamethasone (D-Rd) improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), regardless of cytogenetic risk, and achieved higher rates of complete response or better (≥CR) and minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity vs that with Vd/Rd alone in relapsed/refractory MM. Post hoc analyses of CASTOR and POLLUX evaluated patient subgroups with 1 prior line of therapy based on timing of progression/relapse (early or late) after initiation of first line of therapy. PFS consistently favored the daratumumab-containing regimens across subgroups using both a 24- and 18-month early-relapse cutoff. In the CASTOR/POLLUX pooled data set, daratumumab reduced the risk of disease progression or death by 65% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.48; P < .0001) in the early-relapse (<24 months) subgroup and by 65% (HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.26-0.47; P < .0001) in the late-relapse (≥24 months) subgroup. OS also favored the daratumumab-containing regimens in both the early-relapse (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45-0.86; P = .0036) and late-relapse (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48-0.93; P = .0183) subgroups in the pooled population using a 24-month cutoff. Rates of ≥CR and MRD negativity (10-5) were higher with daratumumab vs control, regardless of progression/relapse timing. Although daratumumab is unable to fully overcome the adverse prognosis of early relapse, our results support the use of daratumumab for patients with 1 prior line of therapy, including for those who progress/relapse early after initial therapy and are considered to have functional high-risk MM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)388-398
Number of pages11
JournalBlood Advances
Volume8
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jan 2024

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Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by The American Society of Hematology.

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