Background: There is increasing evidence that chronic inflammation is an important determinant in insulin resistance and in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). MicroRNAs constitute a newly discovered system of cell regulation and in particular two microRNAs (miR-146a and miR-155) have been described as regulators and biomarkers of inflammation. Aim: To determine a putative association between the levels of miR-146a and miR-155 in serum of T2D patients, clinical parameters and serological indicators of inflammation. Methods: We performed quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) of microRNAs from serum (56 Ecuadorian T2D ambulatory patients and 40 non-diabetic controls). In addition, we evaluated T2D-related serum cytokines. chemokines and growth factors using a commercially available multi-analyte cytometric bead array system. We correlated outcomes to clinical parameters, including BMI, HbA1c and lipid state. Results: The Ecuadorian non-diabetic controls appeared as overweight (BMI>25: patients 85%, controls 82.5%) and as dyslipidemic (hypercholesterolemia: patients 60.7%, controls 67.5%) as the patients. The serum levels of miR-146a were significantly reduced in T2D patients as compared to these non-diabetic, but obese/dyslipidemic control group (mean patients 0.61, mean controls set at 1; p=0.042), those of miR-155 were normal. The serum levels of both microRNAs correlated to each other (r=0.478; p<0.001) and to leptin levels. The microRNAs did not correlate to BMI, glycemia and dyslipidemia. From the tested cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, we found IL-8 and HGF significantly raised in T2D patients versus non-diabetic controls (p=0.011 and 0.023 respectively). Conclusions: This study shows decreased serum anti-inflammatory miR-146a, increased pro-inflammatory IL- 8 and increased HGF (a vascular/insular repair factor) as discriminating markers of failure of glucose control occurring on the background of obesity and dyslipidemia.