Dermatoscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography in Vulvar High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and Lichen Sclerosus: A Prospective Observational Trial

Bertine W. Huisman, Lisa Pagan, Rosanne G.C. Naafs, Wouter Ten Voorde, Robert Rissmann*, Jurgen M.J. Piek, Jeffrey Damman, Maria J. Juachon, Michelle Osse, Tessa Niemeyer-Van Der Kolk, Colette L.M. Van Hees, Mariette I.E. Van Poelgeest

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Objective This study aimed to examine potential discriminatory characteristics of dermatoscopy and dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) on vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (vHSIL) and lichen sclerosus (LS) compared with healthy vulvar skin. Methods A prospective observational clinical trial was performed in 10 healthy volunteers, 5 vHSIL and 10 LS patients. Noninvasive imaging measurements using dermatoscopy and D-OCT were obtained at several time points, including lesional and nonlesional vulvar skin. Morphologic features of vHSIL and LS were compared with healthy controls. Epidermal thickness and blood flow were determined using D-OCT. Patients reported tolerability of each study procedure, including reference vulvar biopsies. The main outcome measures were feasibility and tolerability of imaging modalities, dermatoscopy and OCT characteristics, OCT epidermal thickness and D-OCT dermal blood flow. Results The application of dermatoscopy and D-OCT is feasible and tolerable. In vHSIL, dermatoscopic warty structures were present. In LS, sclerotic areas and arborizing vessels were observed. Structural OCT in the vulvar area aligned with histology for hyperkeratosis and dermal-epidermal junction visualization. Currently, the OCT algorithm is unable to calculate the epidermal thickness of the uneven vulvar area. Dynamic optical coherence tomography showed statistically significant increased blood flow in LS patients (mean ± SD, 0.053 ± 0.029) to healthy controls (0.040 ± 0.012; p =.0024). Conclusions The application of dermatoscopy and D-OCT is feasible and tolerable in vHSIL and LS patients. Using dermatoscopy and D-OCT, the authors describe potential characteristics to aid differentiation of diseased from healthy vulvar skin, which could complement clinical assessments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)255-261
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
Volume27
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: This study was funded by the Centre for Human Drug Research R&D fund.

Publisher Copyright: © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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