Background: Guidelines on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) arise from a critical appraisal of scientific evidence, which is a costly effort. Despite these efforts and the side effects of ADT, guidelines may not always be adhered to. Objective: To determine ADT overtreatment in PCa patients compared to the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines, and to identify predictors and physicians’ motivations for this overtreatment. Design, setting, and participants: Men were included from the European Randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) Rotterdam who were diagnosed with PCa between 2001 and 2019, and received ADT <1 yr after diagnosis. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Patients were categorised into the concordant ADT or discordant ADT group following the EAU guidelines. Physicians’ motivations for discordancy were reported. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors for guideline-discordant ADT including the nonlinear fit of the year of diagnosis. Results and limitations: Of 3608 PCa patients, 1037 received ADT <1 yr after diagnosis. Adherence improved gradually over the study period, resulting in overall discordancy of 15%. A patient diagnosed in 2011 had 3.3 times lower risk on guideline-discordant ADT than a patient diagnosed in 2004 (odds ratio [OR] 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18–0.50). The most common reason for discordancy was unwillingness or unfitness for curative treatment of asymptomatic patients. Age (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.15–1.24) and Gleason score ≥4 + 3 (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.06–2.74) were associated with guideline-discordant ADT. Conclusions: In a Dutch cohort, slow adaptation of the EAU guidelines on ADT for PCa patients between 2001 and 2019 resulted in overall overtreatment of 15%, mostly in asymptomatic patients who were unfit or unwilling for curative treatment. Clear, structured presentation, or integration of these tailored guidelines into the electronic health record might accelerate the adaptation of future guidelines. Patient summary: Slow adaptation of the guidelines on hormonal therapy resulted in overtreatment in 15% of prostate cancer patients, mostly in asymptomatic patients who were unfit or unwilling for curative treatment.
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