Detection of cardiac amyloidosis on routine bone scintigraphy: an important gatekeeper role for the nuclear medicine physician

Mohit Nebhwani, Karina Chaibekava, Anouk Achten, Marish I.F.J. Oerlemans, Michelle Michels, Peter van der Meer, Hans L.A. Nienhuis, Jerremy Weerts, Vanessa van Empel, Hans Peter Brunner La Rocca, Sandra Sanders van Wijk, Jochem van der Pol, Christian Knackstedt*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Cardiac amyloidosis (CA)—mostly transthyretin-related (ATTR-CA)—has recently gained interest in cardiology. Bone scintigraphy (BS) is one of the main screening tools for ATTR-CA but also used for various other reasons. The objective was to evaluate whether all CA cases are detected and what happens during follow-up. All routine BS performed at the Maastricht University Medical Center (May 2012–August 2020) were screened for the presence of CA. Scans performed for suspected CA were excluded. A Perugini stage ≥1 was classified as positive necessitating further examination. The electronic medical record system was evaluated for any contact with cardiology or other specialists until 2021. Of the 2738 BS evaluated, 40 scans (1.46%; median age 73.5 [IQR: 65.8–79.5], 82.5% male) were positive (Perugini grade 1: 31/77.5%, grade 2: 6/15%, grade 3: 3/7.5%); the potential diagnosis ATTR-CA was not seen in 38 patients (95%) by the nuclear medicine specialist. During follow-up, 19 out of those 40 patients (47.5%) underwent cardiac evaluation without diagnosing CA. Available echocardiograms of patients with a positive BS showed left ventricular hypertrophy, a preserved ejection fraction, and diastolic dysfunction ≥2 in 9/47%, 10/53%, and 4/21% of patients, respectively. Additionally, 20 (50%) patients presented to at least one specialty with symptoms indicative of cardiac amyloidosis. The prevalence of a positive BS indicating potential CA in an unselected population is low but substantial. The majority was not detected which asks for better awareness for CA of all involved specialists to ensure appropriate treatment and follow-up. Graphical abstract: (Figure presented.)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1183-1192
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Volume40
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024

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Publisher Copyright: © The Author(s) 2024.

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