Long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and mediastinal non-Hodgkin lymphoma experience late adverse effects of radiotherapy and/or anthracycline-containing chemotherapy, leading to premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
The aim of this study was to identify markers for subclinical cardiovascular disease using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in survivors of HL and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
CMR was performed in 80 lymphoma survivors treated with mediastinal radiotherapy with or without anthracyclines, and results were compared with those among 40 healthy control subjects matched for age and sex.
Of the 80 lymphoma survivors, 98% had histories of HL, the mean age was 47 ± 11 years, and 54% were male. Median radiotherapy dose was 36 Gy (interquartile range: 36-40 Gy), and radiotherapy was combined with anthracyclines in 70 lymphoma survivors (88%). Mean time between diagnosis and CMR was 20 ± 8 years. Significantly lower left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (53% ± 5% vs 60% ± 5%; P < 0.001) and LV mass (47 ± 10 g/m2 vs 56 ± 8 g/m2; P < 0.001) and higher LV end-systolic volume (37 ± 8 mL/m2 vs 33 ± 7 mL/m2; P = 0.013) were found in lymphoma survivors. LV global strain parameters were also significantly worse in lymphoma survivors (P < 0.02 for all). Native myocardial T1 was significantly higher in lymphoma survivors compared with healthy control subjects (980 ± 33 ms vs 964 ± 25 ms; P = 0.007), and late gadolinium enhancement was present in 11% of the survivors.
Long-term lymphoma survivors have detectable changes in LV function and native myocardial T1 on CMR. Further longitudinal studies are needed to assess the implication of these changes in relation to treatment and clinical outcome.