Context: Systematic biopsies are additionally recommended to maximize the diagnostic performance of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostic pathway for men with suspected prostate cancer (PCa) and positive scans. To reduce unnecessary systematic biopsies (SBx), MRI-directed approaches comprising targeted plus regional biopsy (TBx + RBx) are being investigated. Objective: To systematically evaluate the diagnostic performance of MRI-directed TBx + RBx approaches in comparison to MRI-directed TBx alone and TBx + SBx approaches. Evidence acquisition: The MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses process. Identified reports were critically appraised according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) criteria. Detection of grade group (GG) ≥2 PCa was the endpoint of interest. Fixed-effect meta-analyses were conducted to characterize summary effect sizes and quantify heterogeneity. Only MRI-positive men were included. Evidence synthesis: A total of eight studies were included for analysis. Among a cumulative total of 2603 men with suspected PCa, the GG ≥2 PCa detection rate did not significantly differ between MRI-directed TBx + RBx and TBx + SBx approaches (risk ratio [RR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90–1.01; p = 0.09). The TBx + RBx results were obtained using significantly fewer biopsy cores and avoiding contralateral SBx altogether. By contrast, there was significant difference in GG ≥2 PCa detection between MRI-directed TBx + RBx and TBx approaches (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.10–1.25; p < 0.001). Conclusions: MRI-directed TBx + RBx approaches showed a nonsignificant difference in detection of GG ≥2 PCa compared to the recommended practice of MRI-directed TBx + SBx. However, owing to the extensive heterogeneity among the studies included, future prospective clinical studies are needed to further investigate, optimize, and standardize this promising biopsy approach. Patient summary: We reviewed the scientific literature on prostate biopsy approaches using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-directed targeted biopsy plus regional biopsy of the prostate. The studies we identified found arguments to potentially embrace such a combined biopsy approach for future diagnostics in prostate cancer.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s)