Digging into the Accountability Gap: Operator’s Civil Liability in Healthcare AI-systems

Kostina Prifti*, Evert Stamhuis, Klaus Heine

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter/Conference proceedingChapterAcademic

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The increasing autonomy of artificial intelligence systems (AI-systems) has put the debate about a possible ‘accountability gap’ in liability law center stage. The debate is about a possible failure of incumbent liability regimes to pinpoint the accountable agent, if in the wrongdoing an AI-system is involved. A recent attempt to address this ‘accountability gap’ is a proposal of the European Parliament, which advances laws on civil liability for the entities that control AI-systems. These newly created entities, which have no blueprint yet in liability law, are called ‘Operators’. By branching out on the healthcare applications of AI-systems, this chapter analyzes the concept of operator’s civil liability. It starts with a description of the liability concepts presented in the proposed legislation, and how they fit doctrinally with the laws and regulations of the current medical liability regime. Complementing the doctrinal analysis, this chapter employs a law and economics analysis, which showcases that the accountability gap is a serious challenge also from a consequentialist point of view. Lastly, this chapter proposes a few legal alternatives that depart from the incumbent concept of strict liability.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLaw and Artificial Intelligence
Subtitle of host publicationRegulating AI and Applying AI in Legal Practice
EditorsBart Custers, Eduard Fosch-Villaronga
Place of PublicationThe Hague
PublisherT.M.C. Asser Press
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)978-94-6265-523-2
ISBN (Print)978-94-6265-522-5
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright Information: T.M.C. Asser Press and the authors 2022

Research programs

  • SAI 2008-06 BACT


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