Direct discharge for children with a greenstick or torus fracture of the wrist is a non-inferior satisfactory solution to traditional treatment

Jelle Friso Spierings*, Gijs Johan Antoon Willinge, Henk Jan Schuijt, Diederik Pieter Johan Smeeing, Marike Cornelia Kokke, Joost Willem Colaris, Johan Carel Goslings, Bas Anne Twigt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Downloads (Pure)


Purpose: Direct Discharge protocols (DD) can alleviate strain on healthcare systems by reducing routine outpatient follow-up. These protocols include low-complex musculoskeletal injuries, such as isolated greenstick fractures or torus fractures of the wrist in children. While there is consensus on the effectiveness of DD, there is a lack of injury-specific powered studies. This study compares treatment satisfaction between DD and traditional treatment in children with a greenstick fracture or torus fractures of the wrist. Methods: Children with isolated torus or greenstick fractures of the distal radius or ulna were eligible for inclusion before (pre-DD cohort) and after (DD cohort) the implementation of DD in four hospitals. Traditionally, patients receive a (soft) cast and minimally one routine outpatient follow-up appointment. With DD, patients are discharged directly from the ED after receiving a brace and information, summarized in a smartphone app and a helpline for questions during recovery. The primary outcome was patient or proxy treatment satisfaction (0 to 10), and a power analysis was performed to assess non-inferiority. Secondary outcomes included complications, functional outcomes measured in Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Upper Extremity (PROMIS UE), primary healthcare utilisation, and secondary healthcare utilisation (follow-up appointments and imaging). Results: In total, 274 consecutive children were included to analyse the primary endpoint. Of these, 160 (58%) were male with a median age of 11 years (IQR 8 to 12). Pre-DD and DD treatment satisfaction did not vary statistically significantly for greenstick fractures (p = 0.09) and torus fractures (p = 0.93). No complications were observed. PROMIS UE showed no statistically significant differences before and after implementation of direct discharge protocol for torus (p = 0.99) or greenstick (p = 0.45) fractures. Secondary healthcare utilisation regarding follow-up was significantly lower in the DD-torus cohort compared to the pre-DD torus cohort, with a mean difference (MD) of − 1.00 follow-up appointments (95% Confidence Interval (CI) − 0.92 to − 1.13). Similar results were found in the pre DD-greenstick cohort compared to the pre-DD-greenstick cohort (MD): − 1.17 follow-up appointments, 95% CI − 1.09 to − 1.26). Conclusion: Direct Discharge is non-inferior to traditional treatment in terms of treatment satisfaction for paediatric patients with greenstick or torus fractures of the wrist compared to children treated with rigid immobilisation and routine follow-up. Furthermore, the results demonstrate no complications, comparable functional outcomes, and a statistically significant reduction of secondary healthcare utilisation, making DD a good solution to cope with strained resources for children with an isolated greenstick fracture or torus fracture of the wrist.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 13 Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright: © 2024, The Author(s).


Dive into the research topics of 'Direct discharge for children with a greenstick or torus fracture of the wrist is a non-inferior satisfactory solution to traditional treatment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this