DNA methylation is a broadly-investigated epigenetic modification that has been considered as a heritable and reversible change. Previous findings have indicated that DNA methylation regulates gene expression in the central nervous system (CNS). Also, disturbance of DNA methylation patterns has been associated with destructive consequences that lead to human brain diseases such as neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs). In this review, we comprehensively discuss the mechanism and function of DNA methylation and its most recent associations with the pathology of NPDs-including major depressive disorder (MDD), schizophrenia (SZ), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), and attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We also discuss how heterogeneous findings demand further investigations. Finally, based on the recent studies we conclude that DNA methylation status may have implications in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics as a potential epigenetic biomarker of NPDs.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Zeinab Shirvani was financially supported by Shahid Beheshti University , Tehran, Iran and she did not receive any specific grants from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. NV-T is funded by a postdoctoral grant, Juan de la Cierva Programme ( FJC2018-038085-I ), Ministry of Science and Innovation – Spanish State Research Agency . All CRG authors acknowledge the support of the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities to the EMBL partnership, the Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa and the CERCA Programme/Generalitat de Catalunya.
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