Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study

Nathalie Saridjan, AC Huizink, JA (Jitske) Koetsier, Vincent Jaddoe, Johan Mackenbach, Bert Hofman, C Kirschbaum, Frank Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier

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Dysregulation of diurnal cortisol secretion patterns may explain the link between adversities early in life and later mental health problems. However, few studies have investigated the influence of social disadvantage and family adversity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in life. In 366 infants aged 12-20 months from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards, parents collected saliva samples from their infant at 5 moments over the course of 1 day. The area under the curve (AUC), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the diurnal cortisol slope were calculated as different composite measures of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Information about social disadvantage and early adversity was collected using prenatal and postnatal questionnaires. We found that older infants showed lower AUC levels; moreover, infants with a positive CAR were significantly older. Both the AUC and the CAR were related to indicators of social disadvantage and early adversity. Infants of low income families, in comparison to high income families, showed higher AUC levels and a positive CAR. Infants of mothers who smoked during pregnancy wet also significantly more likely to show a positive CAR. Furthermore, infants of mothers experiencing parenting stress showed higher AUC levels. The results of our study show that effects of social disadvantage and early adversity on the diurnal cortisol rhythm are already observable in infants. This may reflect the influence of early negative life events on early maturation of the HPA axis. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)247-254
Number of pages8
JournalHormones & Behavior
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Research programs

  • EMC MM-04-54-08-A
  • EMC NIHES-01-64-01
  • EMC NIHES-01-64-02
  • EMC NIHES-02-65-02
  • EMC NIHES-04-55-01

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