Dolutegravir/Lamivudine Is Noninferior to Continuing Dolutegravir- and Non-Dolutegravir-Based Triple-Drug Antiretroviral Therapy in Virologically Suppressed People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: DUALING Prospective Nationwide Matched Cohort Study

Marta Vasylyev, Ferdinand W.N.M. Wit, Carlijn C.E. Jordans, the AIDS Therapy Evaluation in the Netherlands (ATHENA) Observational HIV Cohort, Robin Soetekouw, Steven F.L. van Lelyveld, Gert Jan Kootstra, Corine E. Delsing, Heidi S.M. Ammerlaan, Marjo E.E. van Kasteren, Annemarie E. Brouwer, Eliane M.S. Leyten, Mark A.A. Claassen, Robert Jan Hassing, Jan G. den Hollander, Marcel van den Berge, Anna H.E. Roukens, Wouter F.W. Bierman, Paul H.P. Groeneveld, Selwyn H. LoweBerend J. van Welzen, Olivier Richel, Jeannine F. Nellen, Guido E.L. van den Berk, Marc van der Valk, Bart J.A. Rijnders, Casper Rokx*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Background. Confirming the efficacy of dolutegravir/lamivudine in clinical practice solidifies recommendations on its use. Methods. Prospective cohort study (DUALING) in 24 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment centers in the Netherlands. HIV RNA–suppressed cases were on triple-drug antiretroviral regimens without prior virological failure or resistance and started dolutegravir/lamivudine. Cases were 1:2 matched to controls on triple-drug antiretroviral regimens by the use of dolutegravir-based regimens, age, sex, transmission route, CD4+ T-cell nadir, and HIV RNA zenith. The primary endpoint was the treatment failure rate in cases versus controls at 1 year by intention-to-treat and on-treatment analyses with 5% noninferiority margin. Results. The 2040 participants were 680 cases and 1380 controls. Treatment failure in the 390 dolutegravir-based cases versus controls occurred in 8.72% and 12.50% (difference: −3.78% [95% confidence interval {CI}, −7.49% to .08%]) by intention-to-treat and 1.39% and 0.80% (difference: 0.59% [95% CI, –.80% to 1.98%]) by on-treatment analyses. The treatment failure risk in 290 non-dolutegravir-based cases was also noninferior to controls. Antiretroviral regimen modifications unrelated to virological failure explained the higher treatment failure rate by intention-to-treat. A shorter time on triple-drug antiretroviral therapy and being of non-Western origin was associated with treatment failure. Treatment failure, defined as 2 consecutive HIV RNA >50 copies/mL, occurred in 4 cases and 5 controls but without genotypic resistance detected. Viral blips occured comparable in cases and controls but cases gained more weight, especially when tenofovir-based regimens were discontinued. Conclusions. In routine care, dolutegravir/lamivudine was noninferior to continuing triple-drug antiretroviral regimens after 1 year, supporting the use of dolutegravir/lamivudine in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberofae160
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2024

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