Dosimetric investigation of lung tumor motion compensation with a robotic respiratory tracking system: An experimental study

E Nioutsikou, Yvette Seppenwoolde, JRN Symonds-Tayler, Ben Heijmen, P Evans, S Webb

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The benefits of using Synchrony (TM) Respiratory Tracking System (RTS) in conjunction with the CyberKnife robotic treatment device to treat a "breathing tumor" in an anthropomorphic, tissue-equivalent, thoracic phantom have been investigated. The following have been studied: (a) Synchrony's ability to allow the CyberKnife to deliver accurately a planned dose distribution to the free-breathing phantom and (b) the dosimetric implications when irregularities in the breathing cycle and phase differences between internal (tumor) and external (chest) motion exist in the course of one treatment fraction. The breathing phantom PULMONE (phantom used in lung motion experiments) has been used, which can imitate regular or irregular breathing patterns. The breathing traces from two patients with lung cancer have been selected as input. Both traces were irregular in amplitude, frequency, and base line. Patient B demonstrated a phase difference between internal and external motion, whereas patient A did not. The experiment was divided into three stages: In stage I-static, the treatment was delivered to the static phantom. In stage II-motion, the phantom was set to breathe, following the breathing trace of each of the two patients. Synchrony (TM) was switched off, so no motion compensation was made. In stage III-compensation, the phantom was set to breathe and Synchrony (TM) was switched on. A linear correspondence model was chosen to allow for phase differences between internal and external motion. Gafchromic EBT film was inserted in the phantom tumor to measure dose. To eradicate small errors in film alignment during readout, a gamma comparison with pass criteria of 3%/3 mm was selected. For a more quantitative approach, the percentage of pixels in each gamma map that exceeded the value of 1 (P-1) was also used. For both breathing signals, the dose blurring caused by the respiratory motion of the tumor in stage II was degraded considerably compared with stage I (P-1=15% for patient A and 8% for patient B). The motion compensation via the linear correspondence model was sufficient to provide a dose distribution that satisfied the set gamma criteria (P-1=3% for patient A and 2% for patient B). Synchrony (TM) RTS has been found satisfactory in recovering the initial detail in dose distribution, for realistic breathing signals, even in the case where a phase delay between internal tumor motion and external chest displacement exists. For the signals applied here, a linear correspondence model provided an acceptable degree of motion compensation. (C) 2008 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)1232-1240
Number of pages9
JournalMedical Physics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2008

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  • EMC MM-03-32-04

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