Drug-induced Urinary Retention: An Analysis of a National Spontaneous Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Database

Salvatore Crisafulli, Paola Maria Cutroneo, Katia Verhamme, Carmen Ferrajolo, Vincenzo Ficarra, Laura Sottosanti, Valentina Di Giovanni, Edoardo Spina, Gianluca Trifirò*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: Numerous drugs have been associated with urinary retention (UR), but updated information on drugs that may induce UR is limited. Objective: To evaluate drug-induced UR using the Italian spontaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting database. Design, setting, and participants: We selected all suspected spontaneous reports of drug-induced UR collected into the Italian spontaneous reporting system (SRS) database from its inception to June 30, 2019. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The Mantel-Haenszel χ2 test and the Mann-Whitney U test were performed for statistical comparisons of categorical and continuous variables, respectively. As a measure of disproportionality, we calculated the reporting odds ratios (RORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals using a statistical case/noncase methodology. Results and limitations: A total of 506 383 ADR reports were received in the Italian SRS database during the study period. Of these, 421 reports (0.1%) included UR-related ADRs, for a total of 497 suspected drugs. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of patients experiencing UR was 67 (47–77) yr. Overall, 174 (41.3%) ADR reports were considered serious. One-third of male patients experiencing UR suffered from benign prostatic hyperplasia, followed by diabetes mellitus (N = 58, 13.8%), and bladder-related disorders (N = 21, 5.0%). The median lag time between the start of drug treatment and UR onset was 7 (IQR 1–47.5) d. Overall, a statistically significant ROR was reported for 39 individual drugs, and for five (12.8%) of them (dapagliflozin, gabapentin, lithium, celecoxib, and piroxicam) UR was not described in their summary of product characteristics. Limitations include under-reporting and selective over-reporting of suspected ADRs and lacking information on the number of drug users. Conclusions: A disproportionality analysis identified five potentially new UR signals for dapagliflozin, gabapentin, lithium, celecoxib, and piroxicam, requiring further evaluation. Patient summary: In this analysis of the Italian spontaneous reporting system database, we found new urinary retention signals, requiring further evaluation, for dapagliflozin, gabapentin, lithium, celecoxib, and piroxicam.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Urology Focus
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Jul 2021

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Publisher Copyright: © 2021 European Association of Urology


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