Early inhalant allergen sensitization at component level: an analysis in atopic Dutch children

Lonneke J. Landzaat*, Joyce A.M. Emons, Laura J.H. Sonneveld, Marco W.J. Schreurs, Nicolette J.T. Arends

*Corresponding author for this work

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Allergic rhinitis is a common respiratory disease in children and sensitization to inhalant allergens plays a significant role in its development. However, limited knowledge exists regarding sensitization profiles of inhalant allergen components in atopic children, particularly in the very young individuals. Understanding these profiles could provide insights into the early development of allergic rhinitis. The objective of this cross-sectional retrospective study was to evaluate the IgE-sensitization profiles to multiple inhalant allergen components and their clinical relevance in Dutch atopic children, with specific focus on children under the age of 4 years. 


A total of 243 atopic children were included in the study and sensitization profiles were analyzed using multiplex microarray analysis (ISAC). Clinical information was obtained from records of a pediatric allergy outpatient clinic between 2011 and 2020. Specific IgE responses to inhalation allergen components from five allergen sources (grass pollen, tree pollen, house dust mite, cat and dog), were examined. The study encompassed children of different age groups and compared those with and without symptoms. 


The results demonstrated that sensitization to inhalant allergen components was present in 92% of the cohort. Sensitization was already evident at a young age (87%), including infancy, with a rapid increase in prevalence after 1 year of age. House dust mite emerged as the most predominant sensitizing allergen in early childhood, followed by tree pollen in later years. Sensitization patterns were similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic children, although symptomatic children exhibited higher frequencies and values. The sensitization profiles in very young children were comparable to those of children across all age groups.


These findings highlight the presence of sensitization to inhalant allergen components and the early onset of allergic rhinitis before the age of 4, including infancy, in Dutch atopic children. Notable allergen molecules in Dutch atopic children under the age of 4 years include Bet v 1, Fel d 1, Der f 1, Der p 1, Der p 10 and Phl p 4, with house dust mite sensitization being the most common among Dutch infants. Moreover, the prevalence of sensitization to inhalant allergens in this Dutch cohort surpassed that of general European populations, emphasizing the importance of early assessment and management of allergic rhinitis in young atopic children.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1173540
Number of pages9
JournalFrontiers in Allergy
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
2023 Landzaat, Emons, Sonneveld, Schreurs and Arends.


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