This study aims to characterize the eco-innovation activities implemented by the Argentine industrial firms, considering their association with different strategies of transition towards a circular economy. An analysis is made of the main motivations and factors that influence the implementation of the different types of EI, including variables such as economic sector, size, age, origin of capitals, productive linkages and innovative profile of firms. A logit regression model is proposed based on data from the National Survey of Employment and Innovation (ENDEI), which collects information from more than 3900 Argentine industrial companies for the period 2014-2016. The results reflect the heterogeneity of both the innovative behavior of the firms and the productive structure of the country. A majority of firms with EI strategies related to resource efficiency and pollution mitigation coexist with a smaller group of companies with a proactive innovative profile and genuinely circular strategies, aimed at reusing waste and designing products with less environmental impact.