Education is argued to be an important driver of the decision to start a business. However, the measurement of its influence is difficult since it is considered to be an endogenous variable. This study accounts for this endogeneity by using an instrumental variables approach and a dataset of more than 10,000 individuals from 27 European countries and the USA. The effect of education on the decision to become self-employed is found to be strongly positive, much higher than the estimated effect in case no instrumental variables are used. That is, the higher the respondent¿s level of education, the greater the likelihood that they will start a business. Implications for entrepreneurship research and practice are discussed.