Background: An evaluation study was conducted in The Netherlands into acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education for immigrants given in their native language by peers. Turkish and Moroccan men were trained to educate people from their own ethnic group. The effect of peer education on the perceived threat of AIDS and beliefs about condom use were studied. Methods: Places where male immigrants met, i.e. coffee houses, mosques and bars, were matched and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group filled out a short questionnaire at the end of the education session (post-test), whereas the control group was pre-tested and had the opportunity of following the AIDS education after participation in the questionnaire. Results: Using multilevel logistic regression analysis, an effect could be established on misunderstandings regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission (OR=5.9 and 95% Cl: 2.3-15.3) and risk appraisal for HIV infection (OR=2.9 and 95% Cl: 1.3-6.3). The perceived benefits of the protective effect of condom use were affected in men 30 years and older, the perceived barrier of diminished satisfaction if using condoms was changed among unmarried men, condom self-efficacy was affected in men who valued peer education as important and an effect on intention to use condoms was found among Moroccans. Conclusion: Continuation of peer-led AIDS education for immigrants and adaption of the message to the needs of specific target groups is recommended.