The Error-Related Negativity (ERN) is a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) that is associated with action monitoring and error detection. The present study addressed the question whether or not an ERN occurs after verbal error detection, e.g., during phoneme monitoring. We obtained an ERN following verbal errors which showed a typical decrease in amplitude under severe time pressure. This result demonstrates that the functioning of the verbal self-monitoring system is comparable to other performance monitoring, such as action monitoring. Furthermore, we found that participants made more errors in phoneme monitoring under time pressure than in a control condition. This may suggest that time pressure decreases the amount of resources available to a capacity-limited self-monitor thereby leading to more errors.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The work presented in the manuscript is supported by NWO grant no. 453-02-006 to Niels O. Schiller. The authors would like to thank Bernadette Jansma (Maastricht University) and anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on earlier versions of the manuscript. The manuscript benefited from discussions during poster presentations at the NWO summer school on language and perception in Doorwerth, October 2004, a symposium on neuroscience and cognitive control in Ghent, December, 2004, and the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society in New York, April, 2005.