Electrical Impedance Tomography to Monitor Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure

Guillaume Franchineau, Annemijn H. Jonkman, Lise Piquilloud, Takeshi Yoshida, Eduardo Costa, Hadrien Rozé, Luigi Camporota, Thomas Piraino, Elena Spinelli, Alain Combes, Glasiele C. Alcala, Marcelo Amato, Tommaso Mauri, Inéz Frerichs, Laurent J. Brochard, Matthieu Schmidt*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Hypoxemic respiratory failure is one of the leading causes of mortality in intensive care. Frequent assessment of individual physiological characteristics and delivery of personalized mechanical ventilation (MV) settings is a constant challenge for clinicians caring for these patients. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a radiation-free bedside monitoring device that is able to assess regional lung ventilation and changes in aeration. With real-time tomographic functional images of the lungs obtained through a thoracic belt, clinicians can visualize and estimate the distribution of ventilation at different ventilation settings or following procedures such as prone positioning. Several studies have evaluated the performance of EIT to monitor the effects of different MV settings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, allowing more personalized MV. For instance, EIT could help clinicians find the positive end-expiratory pressure that represents a compromise between recruitment and overdistension and assess the effect of prone positioning on ventilation distribution. The clinical impact of the personalization of MV remains to be explored. Despite inherent limitations such as limited spatial resolution, EIT also offers a unique noninvasive bedside assessment of regional ventilation changes in the ICU. This technology offers the possibility of a continuous, operator-free diagnosis and real-time detection of common problems during MV. This review provides an overview of the functioning of EIT, its main indices, and its performance in monitoring patients with acute respiratory failure. Future perspectives for use in intensive care are also addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)670-682
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Volume209
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2024

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