Emergence of MRSA of unknown origin in the Netherlands

Sybren Lekkerkerk, N van de Sande-Bruinsma, MAB van der Sande, A Tjon-A-Tsien, A Groenheide, A Haenen, A Timen, PJ van den Broek, Willem van Wamel, AJ de Neeling, Jan hendrik Richardus, Henri Verbrugh, Greet Vos

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Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: 656661 Abstract The Netherlands is known for its low methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence. Yet MRSA with no link to established Dutch risk factors for acquisition, MRSA of unknown origin (MUO), has now emerged and hampers early detection and control by active screening upon hospital admittance. We assessed the magnitude of the problem and determined the differences between MUO and MRSA of known origin (MKO) for CC398 and non-CC398. National MRSA Surveillance data (20082009) were analysed for epidemiological determinants and genotypic characteristics (PantonValentine leukocidin, spa). A quarter (24%) of the 5545 MRSA isolates registered were MUO, i.e. not from defined risk groups. There are two genotypic MUO groups: CC398 MUO (352; 26%) and non-CC398 MUO (998; 74%). CC398 MUO needs further investigation because it could suggest spread, not by direct contact with livestock (pigs, veal calves), but through the community. Non-CC398 MUO is less likely to be from a nursing home than non-CC398 MKO (relative risk 0.55; 95% CI 0.420.72) and PantonValentine leukocidin positivity was more frequent in non-CC398 MUO than MKO (relative risk 1.19; 95% CI 1.111.29). Exact transmission routes and risk factors for non-CC398 as CC398 MUO remain undefined.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)656-661
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Microbiology and Infection
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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