We give an overview of the contributions to this special issue and identify topics for further research. The contributions collected in this special issue document considerable advancements in the research about the effects of new business formation on regional development. Differences in these effects are found according to types of start-ups and their regional environment. Future research should try to shed more light on such differences. This particularly requires information about the characteristics of start-ups such as their knowledge intensity as well as their innovativeness and characteristics of their product program. Moreover, future research has to clarify to what extent new business formation is determined by previous or expected growth and to what extent start-ups have an effect on economic growth independent of an already existent development trend.