Environmental effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, Update 2021

P. W. Barnes, T. M. Robson, P. J. Neale, C. E. Williamson, R. G. Zepp, S. Madronich, S. R. Wilson, A. L. Andrady, A. M. Heikkilä, G. H. Bernhard, A. F. Bais, R. E. Neale, J. F. Bornman*, M. A.K. Jansen, A. R. Klekociuk, J. Martinez-Abaigar, S. A. Robinson, Q. W. Wang, A. T. Banaszak, D. P. HäderS. Hylander*, K. C. Rose, S. Wängberg, B. Foereid, W. C. Hou, R. Ossola, N. D. Paul, J. E. Ukpebor, M. P.S. Andersen, J. Longstreth, T. Schikowski, K. R. Solomon, B. Sulzberger, L. S. Bruckman, K. K. Pandey, C. C. White, L. Zhu, M. Zhu, P. J. Aucamp, J. B. Liley, R. L. McKenzie, M. Berwick, S. N. Byrne, L. M. Hollestein, R. M. Lucas, C. M. Olsen, L. E. Rhodes, S. Yazar, A. R. Young

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel of the Montreal Protocol under the United Nations Environment Programme evaluates effects on the environment and human health that arise from changes in the stratospheric ozone layer and concomitant variations in ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth’s surface. The current update is based on scientific advances that have accumulated since our last assessment (Photochem and Photobiol Sci 20(1):1–67, 2021). We also discuss how climate change affects stratospheric ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation, and how stratospheric ozone depletion affects climate change. The resulting interlinking effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and climate change are assessed in terms of air quality, carbon sinks, ecosystems, human health, and natural and synthetic materials. We further highlight potential impacts on the biosphere from extreme climate events that are occurring with increasing frequency as a consequence of climate change. These and other interactive effects are examined with respect to the benefits that the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments are providing to life on Earth by controlling the production of various substances that contribute to both stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-301
Number of pages27
JournalPhotochemical and Photobiological Sciences
Volume21
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Open access funding was provided by Linnaeus University, Sweden.

Publisher Copyright: © 2022, The Author(s).

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