Background and Objectives: Methods for estimating health values in adult populations are well developed, but lag behind in children. The EuroQol standard protocol to arrive at value sets for the youth version of the EQ-5D-Y-3L combines discrete choice experiments with ten composite time trade-off values. Whether ten composite time trade-off values are sufficient remains to be seen and this is one of the reasons the protocol allows for experimental expansion. In this study, 23 health states were administered for the composite time trade-off. This methodological research is embedded in a study aimed at generating a representative value set for EQ-5D-Y-3L in Indonesia. Methods: A representative sample of 1072 Indonesian adults each completed 15 discrete choice experiment choice pairs via face-to-face interviews. The discrete choice experiment responses were analysed using a mixed-logit model. To anchor the discrete choice experiment values onto the full health-dead quality-adjusted life-year scale, composite time trade-off values were separately obtained from 222 adults living in Java for 23 EQ-5D-Y-3L states. The derived latent discrete choice experiment values were mapped onto the mean observed composite time trade-off values to create a value set for the EQ-5D-Y-3L. Linear and non-linear mapping models were explored to estimate the most efficient and valid model for the value set. Results: Coefficients obtained from the choice model were consistent with the monotonic structure of the EQ-5D-Y-3L instrument. The composite time trade-off data showed non-linearity, as the values for the two worst states being evaluated were much lower than predicted by a standard linear model estimated over all composite time trade-off data. Thus, the non-linear mapping strategies with a power term outperformed the linear mapping in terms of mean absolute error. The final model gave a value range from 1.000 for full health (11111) to − 0.086 for the worst health state (33333). Values were most affected by pain/discomfort and least by self-care. Conclusions: This article presents the first EQ-5D-Y-3L value set for Indonesia based on the stated preferences of adults asked to consider their views about a 10-year-old child. Mapping the mixed-logit discrete choice experiment model with the inclusion of a power term (without a constant) allowed us to generate a consistent value set for Indonesian youth. Our findings support the expansion of the composite time trade-off part of the EQ-5D-Y valuation study design and show that it would be wise to account for possible non-linearities in updates of the design.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding for this study was provided by the EuroQol Group grant EQ Project 20180490 and Indonesian Endowment Fund for Education (LPDP). Both grants were unrestricted.
© 2022, The Author(s).