For the development of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccines mostly structural proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to induce protective immunity. In the present study, subunit vaccines containing recombinant FIV accessory proteins Rev and OrfA were evaluated in cats. Cats were vaccinated repeatedly with these proteins, adjuvanted with immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs). In addition, cats were vaccinated with bacterially expressed fragments spanning the entire FIV envelope protein, either atone or in combination with the regulatory proteins. Subsequently, the cats were challenged with a homologous FIV strain to assess the level of protective immunity achieved with the respective vaccination regimens. Although the vaccines proved to be immunogenic, vaccinated cats were not protected from infection with FIV. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.