In recent years, the development of 3D organoids has opened new avenues of investigation into development, physiology, and regenerative medicine. Organoid formation and the process of organogenesis share common developmental pathways; thus, our knowledge of developmental biology can help model the complexity of different organs to refine organoids into a more sophisticated platform. The developmental process is strongly dependent on complex networks and communication of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions among different cell populations and their microenvironment, during embryogenesis. These interactions affect cell behaviors such as proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation. Co-culture systems within the organoid technology were recently developed and provided the highly physiologically relevant systems. Supportive cells including various types of endothelial and stromal cells provide the proper microenvironment, facilitate organoid assembly, and improve vascularization and maturation of organoids. This review discusses the role of the co-culture systems in organoid generation, with a focus on how knowledge of developmental biology has directed and continues to shape the development of more evolved 3D co-culture system-derived organoids.
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This work was supported by the Royan Institute and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation within the framework of state support for the creation and development of World-Class Research Centers “ Digital biodesign and personalized healthcare ” (N. 075-15-2020-926 ).
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