Excessive production and extreme editing of human metapneumovirus defective interfering RNA is associated with type I IFN induction

BG van den Hoogen, Sander van Boheemen, Jonneke Rijck, Stefan van Nieuwkoop, Derek Smith, Brigitta Laksono, A Gultyaev, Ab Osterhaus, Ron Fouchier

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35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Type I IFN production is one of the hallmarks of host innate immune responses upon virus infection. Whilst most respiratory viruses carry IFN antagonists, reports on human metapneumovirus (HMPV) have been conflicting. Using deep sequencing, we have demonstrated that HMPV particles accumulate excessive amounts of defective interfering RNA (DIs) rapidly upon in vitro passage, and that these are associated with IFN induction. Importantly, the Dls were edited extensively; up to 70% of the original A and T residues had mutated to G or C, respectively. Such high editing rates of viral RNA have not, to our knowledge, been reported before. Bioinformatics and PCR assays indicated that adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) was the most likely editing enzyme. HMPV thus has an unusually high propensity to generate Dls, which are edited at an unprecedented high frequency. The conflicting published data on HMPV IFN induction and antagonism are probably explained by Die in virus stocks. The interaction of HMPV Die with the RNA-editing machinery and IFN responses warrants further investigation.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)1625-1633
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of General Virology
Volume95
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Research programs

  • EMC MM-04-27-01

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