No clinical trials have specifically explored the benefits of low-protein diet in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) 3B. In the absence of RCTs, expert opinion may be a valid surrogate to estimate treatment effectiveness. A questionnaire-based survey of a large sample of nephrologists from Southern Italy was conducted to explore benefits of low-protein diet (LPD) in delaying dialysis entry in different CKD stages. For the case vignettes describing eight different patient profiles with various CKD stages, nephrologists reported expected benefits as time delay of dialysis entry. Information was collected through questionnaires filled by 88 nephrologists from different Southern Italian hospitals. On average,
nephrologists estimated the highest delay in starting dialysis due to LPD in stages 3B (15 months) and 3A (14 months), and the lowest for 5 stage (3 months). According to opinion of a large sample of Southern Italian nephrologists, low-protein diet may be more efficacious if started in CKD stage 3B than 4 and 5.