Factors associated with laryngeal injury after intubation in children: a systematic review

L. L. Veder*, K. F.M. Joosten, M. K. Timmerman, B. Pullens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Purpose: 

The purpose of this study is to evaluate all potential factors associated with laryngeal injury after endotracheal intubation in the pediatric population. 

Methods: 

A systematic literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase, Cochrane, web of science and Google scholar up to 20th of March 2023. We included all unique articles focusing on factors possibly associated with intubation-injury in pediatric patients. Two independent reviewers determined which articles were relevant by coming to a consensus, quality of evidence was rated using GRADE criteria. All articles were critically appraised according to the PRISMA guidelines. The articles were categorized in four outcome measures: post-extubation stridor, post-extubation upper airway obstruction (UAO) necessitating treatment, laryngeal injury found at laryngoscopy and a diagnosed laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS). 

Results: 

A total of 24 articles with a total of 15.520 patients were included. The incidence of post-extubation stridor varied between 1.0 and 30.3%, of post-extubation UAO necessitating treatment between 1.2 and 39.6%, of laryngeal injury found at laryngoscopy between 34.9 to 97.0% and of a diagnosed LTS between 0 and 11.1%. Although the literature is limited and quality of evidence very low, the level of sedation and gastro-esophageal reflux are the only confirmed associated factors with post-extubation laryngeal injury. The relation with age, weight, gender, duration of intubation, multiple intubations, traumatic intubation, tube size, absence of air leak and infection remain unresolved. The remaining factors are not associated with intubation injury. 

Conclusion: 

We clarify the role of the potential factors associated with laryngeal injury after endotracheal intubation in the pediatric population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2833-2847
Number of pages15
JournalEuropean Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume281
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2024.

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