Factors associated with physical, psychological and social frailty among community-dwelling older persons in Europe: a cross-sectional study of Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE)

Lizhen Ye, Liset E.M. Elstgeest, Xuxi Zhang, Tamara Alhambra-Borrás, Siok Swan Tan, Hein Raat*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Frailty is an age-related condition resulting in a state of increased vulnerability regarding functioning across multiple systems. It is a multidimensional concept referring to physical, psychological and social domains. The purpose of this study is to identify factors (demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and health indicators) associated with overall frailty and physical, psychological and social frailty in community-dwelling older people from five European countries. Methods: This cross-sectional study used baseline data from 2289 participants of the Urban Health Center European project in five European countries. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess associations of the factors with overall frailty and the three frailty domains. Results: The mean age was 79.7 (SD = 5.7). Participants who were older, were female, had secondary or equivalent education, lived alone, not at risk of alcohol use, were less physically active, had multi-morbidity, were malnourished or with a higher level of medication risk, had higher odds of overall frailty (all P < 0.05). Age was not associated with psychological and social frailty; sex was not associated with social frailty; smoking and migration background was not associated with overall frailty or any of its domains. There existed an interaction effect between sex and household composition regarding social frailty (P < 0.0003). Conclusions: The present study contributed new insights into the risk factors for frailty and its three domains (physical, psychological and social frailty). Nurses, physicians, public health professionals and policymakers should be aware of the risk factors of each type of frailty. Furthermore, examine these risk factors more comprehensively and consider overall frailty as well as its three domains in order to further contribute to decision-making more precisely on the prevention and management of frailty. Trial registration: The intervention of the UHCE project was registered in the ISRCTN registry as ISRCTN52788952. The date of registration is 13/03/2017.

Original languageEnglish
Article number422
JournalBMC Geriatrics
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Urban Health Centres Europe is funded by the European Union, Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency (CHAFEA), third health program, number 20131201.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).

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