Feasibility of onchocerciasis elimination using a “test and not treat” strategy in Loa loa co endemic areas

David Blok*, J Kamgno, SD Pion, HC Nana-Djeunga, Y Niamsi-Emalio, CB Chesnais, CD Mackenzie, AD Klion, DA Fletcher, TB Nutman, Sake Vlas, MD Boussinesq, Wilma Stolk

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
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Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin is the main strategy for onchocerciasis elimination. Ivermectin is generally safe, but is associated with serious adverse events in individuals with high Loa loa microfilarial densities (MFD). Therefore, ivermectin MDA is not recommended in areas where onchocerciasis is hypo-endemic and L loa is co-endemic. To eliminate onchocerciasis in those areas, a test-and-not-treat (TaNT) strategy has been proposed. We investigated whether onchocerciasis elimination can be achieved using TaNT and the required duration. Methods: We used the individual-based model ONCHOSIM to predict the impact of TaNT on onchocerciasis microfilarial (mf) prevalence. We simulated precontrol mf prevalence levels from 2% to 40%. The impact of TaNT was simulated under varying levels of participation, systematic nonparticipation, and exclusion from ivermectin resulting from high L loa MFD. For each scenario, we assessed the time to elimination, defined as bringing onchocerciasis mf prevalence below 1.4%. Results: In areas with 30% to 40% precontrol mf prevalence, the model predicted that it would take between 14 and 16 years to bring the mf prevalence below 1.4% using conventional MDA, assuming 65% participation. TaNT would increase the time to elimination by up to 1.5 years, depending on the level of systematic nonparticipation and the exclusion rate. At lower exclusion rates (≤2.5%), the delay would be less than 6 months. Conclusions: Our model predicts that onchocerciasis can be eliminated using TaNT in L loa co-endemic areas. The required treatment duration using TaNT would be only slightly longer than in areas with conventional MDA, provided that participation is good.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e1047-e1055
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.


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