Fostering creativity across countries: The moderating effect of cultural bundles on creativity

Kevyn Yong*, Pier Vittorio Mannucci, Michel W. Lander

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Research has traditionally focused on the moderating role of single cultural dimensions to capture differences in how individual creativity is fostered across cultures. Culture, however, is a multidimensional construct, with cultural dimensions operating interdependently. Building on this reasoning, we propose that the moderating effect of culture is better understood by focusing on the configuration of cultural bundles. We define a cultural bundle as the set including the cultural value dimensions that characterize a given country, and the strength of the norms enforcing these values. We find support for this view in a mixed-methods study that combines a meta-analysis of 584 effect sizes from 205 studies set in 38 different countries with fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fs/QCA). We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings, arguing for the importance of focusing on cultural bundles, rather than cultural dimensions in isolation, to understand the moderating effect of culture on creativity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-45
Number of pages45
JournalOrganizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
Volume157
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
a References Country N K α CRE Correlates (r/α) Ahmetoglu, Harding, Akhtar, and Chamorro-Premuzic (2015) UK 210 3 0.85 IM (0.31/0.79); IM (0.14/0.85); PERS (0.44/0.87) Al Shehri, Al Harthi, and Al-Khatib (2013) Saudi Arabia 175 1 0.97 EDU (0.29/1) Alge, Ballinger, Tangirala, and Oakley (2006) USA 489 4 0.88 EXP (0.18/0.79); CS (0.21/0.90); CS (0.05/0.75); PERS (0.24/0.89) Amabile, Barsade, Mueller, and Staw (2005) USA 222 7 1;0.81 EDU (0.03/1); EDU (0.12/1); CS (0.16/1); AFF (0.02/1); AFF (0.02/1); AFF (0.03/0.79); AFF (0.18/0.79) Amabile, Conti, Coon, Lazenby, and Herron (1996) USA 141 2 1 PERS (0.55/0.84); IM (0.45/0.66) Andrews and Smith (1996) USA 168 7 0.91 KDIV (−0.13/1); KDIV (−0.03/1); KDIV (0.30/1); EXP (0.13/1); EXP (0.04/1); PERS (0.33/0.69); IM (0.29/0.60) Baer (2010) USA 216 3 0.93 EDU (0.27/1); KDIV (0.18/1); PERS (0.24/0.85) Baer and Oldham (2006) USA 170 2 0.98 EDU (−0.05/1); PERS (0.00/0.72) Baer, Oldham, and Cummings (2003) USA 142 2 0.90 EDU (0.29/1); CS (0.24/0.84) Baron and Tang (2011) USA 99 3 1; 0.74 PERS (0.27/0.74); AFF (0.38/0.82); AFF (0.21/0.82) Basadur, Graen, and Green (1982) USA 45 4 1 CS (0.35/1); CS (0.21/1); CS (0.33/1); CS (0.04/1) Bergendhal et al. 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(2013) Sample 2 Israel 130 3 0.96;1;1 EDU (0.13/1); EDU (0.01/1); EDU (−0.01/1) Carmeli, Reiter-Palmon, and Ziv (2010) Israel 150 1 0.94 PERS (0.34/0.74) Carmeli, Sheaffer, Binyamin, Reiter-Palmon, and Shimoni (2014) Israel 202 3 0.89 EDU (0.15/1); CS (0.32/0.86); IM (0.56/0.91) Carmeli et al. (2014) Israel 302 2 0.86 EDU (0.11/1); CS (0.26/7) Carmeli and Spreitzer (2009) Israel 172 2 0.92 EDU (0.14/1); CS (0.66/0.94) Carnabuci & Dioszegi (2015) Italy 67 2 1 EDU (0.24/1); CS (0.24/1) Cattani and Ferriani (2008) USA 22,115 1 1 CS (0.15/1) Çekmecelioğlu and Özbağ (2016) Turkey 181 3 0.91 IM (0.26/0.83); IM (0.17/0.9); IM (0.42/0.87) Černe, Hernaus, Dysvik, and Škerlavaj (2017) Slovenia 240 2 0.93 EDU (0.06/1); IM (0.34/0.83) Chandler, Keller, and Lyon (2000) USA 429 1 0.88 EDU (0.10/1) Chang, Jia, Takeuchi, and Cai (2014) China 1059 2 0.9 EDU (0.06/1); PERS (0.04/0.81) Chen, Chang, and Chang (2015) Taiwan 337 4 0.87 EXP (−0.06/1); PERS (0.46/0.66); PERS (0.18/0.61); PERS (0.49/0.7) Chen and Gable (2013) China 93 1 1 EDU (0.00/1) Chen and Hou (2016) Taiwan 291 1 1 EDU (0.08/1) Cheng (2014) Taiwan 353 2 0.81 CS (0.03/0.90); IM (0.14/0.83) Chiang, Hsu, and Shih (2017) Taiwan 224 4 0.79 EXP (0.27/0.92); PERS (0.66/0.9); PERS (0.47/0.87); SEF (0.41/0.9) Choi, Anderson, and Veillette (2009) Canada 123 1 0.95 CS (0.18/0.83) Chua (2018) USA 72 1 0.98 EXP (−0.22/1) Chua, Morris, and Mor (2012) Sample 1 USA 43 3 0.78 EXP (−0.11/1); KDIV (−0.07/1); CS (0.09/0.88) Chua et al. (2012) Sample 2 USA 1127 3 1 KDIV (0.01/1); AFF (0.58/0.81); CS (−0.03/0.78) Coelho, Augusto, and Lages (2011) Portugal 460 1 0.84 IM (0.32/0.85) Cohen-Meitar, Carmeli, and Waldman (2009) Romania 201 3 0.94 EDU (−0.13/1); PERS (0.36/0.92); PERS (0.36/0.90) Dahl and Moreau (2002) USA 19 1 0.70 CS (0.42 /1) De Clerq et al. (2017) Mexico 707 1 0.94 CS (0.05/0.78) De Spiegelaere, Van Gyes, De Witte, Niesen, and Van Hootegem (2014) Belgium 927 2 0.91 IM (0.19/0.81); IM (0.26/0.85) De Stobbleleir et al. (2011) USA 456 1 0.84 CS (0.23/0.83) Dewett (2006) USA 287 3 0.96 PERS (0.17/0.86); PERS (−0.02/70); PERS (0.21/90) Ding, Levin, Stephan, and Winkler (2010) USA 3114 2 1 EXP (0.05/1); EXP (0.04/1) Dong, Liao, Chuang, Zhou, and Campbell (2015) Taiwan 380 1 0.94 IM (0.19/0.84) Dougan, Schiff, and Welch (1949) USA 33 1 1 CS (0.21/1) Eisenberger and Aselage (2009) USA 180 2 0.94 PERS (0.22/0.72); IM (0.20/0.85) Eisenberger and Rhoades (2001) Sample 1 USA 239 1 0.88 PERS (0.15/77) Eisenberger and Rhoades (2001) Sample 2 USA 313 1 0.88 IM (0.13/0.78) Ettlie and O'Keefe (1982) USA 123 5 0.84 EDU (0.13/1); PERS (0.20/0.74); PERS (0.66/0.98); PERS (0.40/0.98); CS (0.31/0.85) Fagan (2004) USA 60 1 0.80 CS (0.28/0.88) Farmer, Tierney, and Kung-McIntyre (2003) Taiwan 166 4 0.92 EDU (0.43/1); PERS (0.29/0.80); PERS (0.30/0.91); CS (0.47/0.95) Fleming et al. (2007) USA 53,570 1 1 KDIV (0.04/1) Ford and Gioia (2000) USA 153 1 1 CS (0.24/0.61); Ganjali and Rezaee (2016) Iran 302 1 0.81 IM (0.7/0.89) George and Zhou (2001) USA 149 2 0.96 PERS (−0.03; 0.81); PERS (−0.02/69) George and Zhou (2002) USA 67 5 0.98 CS (0.20/0.80); AFF (−0.03/0.80); AFF (0.23/0.91) PERS (0.16/0.93); PERS (0.14/0.83) George and Zhou (2007) USA 161 3 0.94 EDU (−0.12/1); AFF (0.11/0.82); AFF (0.25/0.87) Gilson and Shalley (2004) UK 137 1 0.80 CS (0.24/0.87) Goldenberg, Lehmann, and Mazursky (2001) Israel 127 3 1 CS (−0.29/1); CS (−0.01/1); CS (0.36/1) Gong, Huang, and Farh (2009) Taiwan 178 3 0.93 EDU (−0.10/1); CS (0.20/0.87); SEF (0.24/0.91) González et al. (2013) Mexico 1704 4 1 EXP (0.65/1); EXP (0.55/1); EXP (0.52/1); EXP (0.65/1) González-Gómez and Richter (2015) Sample 1 Colombia 286 4 0.94;0.96 AFF (0.55/0.94); AFF (0.53/0.95); AFF (−0.04/0.94); AFF (−0.09/0.95) González-Gómez and Richter (2015) Sample 2 Colombia 185 1 0.95 AFF (−0.11/0.89) Grant and Berry (2011) Sample 1 South Korea 90 4 0.97 PERS (0.07/0.97); PERS (0.06/0.75); PERS (0.07/0.77); IM (0.32/0.97) Grant and Berry (2011) Sample 2 South Korea 111 8 0.97 KDIV (0.15/0.91); PERS (0.19/0.87); PERS (0.17/0.79); PERS (0.13/0.78); CS (0.02/0.80); IM (0.16/0.80); IM (0.21/0.91); IM (−0.04/0.90) Grosser, Venkataramani, and Labianca (2017) USA 144 3 0.71 EDU (0.09/1); EXP (0.01/1); SEF (0.25/0.73) Groza, Locander, and Howlett (2016) USA 262 4 0.87 EXP (0.38/0.86); EXP (0.59/0.83); CS (0.61/0.83); CS (0.52/0.81) Gu, Tang, and Jiang (2015) China 160 1 0.97 EDU (0.41/1); Gu, Song, and Wu (2016) China 207 1 0.84 EDU (0.01/1) Gumusluoglu and Ilsev (2009) Turkey 163 3 0.95 EDU (0.12/0.88); PERS (0.24/0.82); IM (0.24/0.77) Guo, Su, and Zhang (2017) China 142 2 0.90 PERS (0.62/0.79); PERS (0.41/0.81) Hall and MacKinnin (1969) USA 124 6 1 PERS (0.36/1); PERS (0.24/1); PERS (0.24/1); PERS (0.43/1); PERS (0.19/1); CS (0.45/1) Harrison and Wagner (2016) Singapore 108 1 0.91 PERS (0.15/0.87) He, Yao, Wang, and Caughron (2016) China 345 8 0.87;0.94 EDU (−0.01/1); EDU (0.21/1); CS (0.00/0.76); CS (0.14/76); CS (−0.04/0.76); CS (0.1/0.76); PERS (0.19/0.82); PERS (0.16/0.82); Hirst, Van Knippenberg, Chen, and Sacramento (2011) Taiwan 330 2 0.84 EDU (0.09/1); CS (0.11/0.89) Hon, Bloom, and Crant (2014) China 452 2 0.94 EDU (0.06/1); PERS (0.34/0.85) Hon and Leung (2011) China 250 2 0.94 EDU (0.06/1); IM (0.40/0.79) Hood and Koberg (1991) USA 122 2 1 AFF (0.00/0.79); IM (0.00/0.76) Horng and Hu (2009) Singapore 669 3 0.94 CS (0.24/0.94); CS (0.19/0.85); CS (0.21/0.99) Houghton and DiLiello (2010) USA 693 1 0.84 SEF (0.12/0.84) Hsu and Fan (2010) Sample 1 Taiwan 1703 1 0.80 EDU (0.06/1) Hsu and Fan (2010) Sample 2 Taiwan 306 1 0.86 EDU (0.02/1) Hsu, Hou, and Fan (2011) Taiwan 120 5 0.91 PERS (0.37/0.71); PERS (0.25/0.70); PERS (0.45/0.89); PERS (0.18/0.70) SEF (0.42/0.80) Huang, Hsieh, and He (2014) Sample 1 China 200 1 0.77 KDIV (0.09/1) Huang et al. (2014) Sample 2 China 82 1 0.95 KDIV (−0.13/1) Ibarra (1993) USA 79 4 1 EXP (0.30/1); EDU (0.07/1); EXP (0.31/1); EDU (0.33/1) Isaksen and Lauer (2002) USA 154 2 1 AFF (−0.93/1); PERS (0.65/1) Jafri, Dem, and Choden (2016) Bhutan 250 2 1 CS (0.35/1); PERS (0.42/1) Jaiswal and Dhar (2016) India 424 3 0.81 EDU (0.20/1); EXP (0.15/1); SEF (0.79/72) Janssen and Huang (2008) Netherlands 157 1 0.94 CS (0.34/0.90) Jaskyte and Kisieliene (2006) Lithuania 122 2 0.95 CS (0.34/0.85); IM (0.48/0.78) Jaussi, Knights, and Gupta (2017) USA 129 6 0.71; 0.87 EXP (−0.08/0.8); EXP (−0.13/0.08); AFF (0.24/0.79); AFF (0.27/0.9); AFF (0.26/0.79); AFF (0.31/0.9) Jaussi, Randel, and Dionne (2007) USA 179 4 0.92 CS (0.17/0.71); PERS (0.26/0.89); PERS (0.07/65); SEF (0.15/0.62) Jaussi and Randel (2014) USA 368 8 0.74;0.8 EXP (0.04/1); EXP (0.05/1); KDIV (0.12/0.71); KDIV (0.06/0.81); KDIV (0.15/0.71); KDIV (0.15/0.81); SEF (0.06/0.77); SEF (0.17/0.77) Jiang, Gu, and Tang (2017) China 253 2 0.86 EDU (−0.04/1); SEF (0.31/0.83) Jo and Lee (2012) South Korea 365 1 0.95 IM (0.66/0.87) Jones (1964) USA 88 2 1 CS (0.35/1); PERS (0.24/1) Kalyar (2011) Pakistan 180 1 0.81 EDU (0.76/1) Kang, Solomon, and Choi (2015) USA 105 1 0.81 EDU (0.16/1) Keller and Holland (1978) USA 256 6 1 EDU (0.22/1); EDU (0.06/1); PERS (−0.18/80); PERS (−0.13/0.80); PERS (0.17/86); PERS (−0.04/0.86) Khazanchi and Masterson (2011) India 223 2 0.80 CS (0.58/0.35); PERS (0.16/0.72) Kim, Hon, and Crant (2009) Hong Kong 146 2 0.94 PERS (0.36/0.81); IM (0.38/0.88) Kim, Hon, and Lee (2010) South Korea 157 2 0.94 EDU (−0.04; 1); PERS (0.28/0.88) Lapierre and Giroux (2003) Canada 122 1 1 CS (0.18/1) Li, Deng, Leung, and Zhao (2017) China 196 2 0.90 EDU (0.14/1); IM (0.13/0.83) Li, Li, Guo, Li, and Harris (2018) China 200 3 0.76; 0.81; 0.87 EDU (0.08/1); EDU (0.02/1); EDU (0.14/1) Liao, Liu, and Loi (2010) China 828 4 1 EXP (−0.20/1); EDU (0.03/1); SEF (0.31/0.96); SEF (0.32/0.90) Lindskog, Hemphälä, and Eriksson (2017) Sweden 281 1 1 EDU (0.19/1) Litchfield, Ford, and Gentry (2015) USA 146 1 0.95 CS (0.17/0.85) Liu, Chiu, and Chiu (2010) China 551 1 1 KDIV (0.36/1) Liu, Chen, and Yao (2011) Study 1 China 525 4 0.91 EDU (0.01/1); PERS (0.23/0.84); IM (0.36/0.85); IM (0.16/0.88) Liu et al. (2011) Study 2 China 856 3 0.90 EDU (−0.02/1); PERS (0.44/0.86); IM (0.40/0.91) Liu, Gong, Zhou, and Huang (2017) China 352 4 0.90 EDU (0.12/1); EXP (0.39/0.80); IM (0.24/0.84); SEF (0.15/0.77) Liu and Lin (2012) Taiwan 77 2 1 EXP (−0.11/1); EXP (−0.11/1) Lomberg, Kollmann, and Stöckmann (2017) Denmark 191 8 0.85/0.89 CS (0.22/1); CS (0.07/1); CS (0.13/1); CS (0.21/1); CS (0.16/1); CS (0.08/1); CS (0.12/1); CS (0.26/1) Lu et al. (2017) USA 141 3 1 EDU (0.06/1); PERS (−0.01/1); PERS (0.04/1) Madjar et al. (2002) USA 265 3 1 EDU (−0.01/1); PERS (0.14/0.82); AFF (0.20/0.71) Madjar, Greenberg, and Chen (2011) Taiwan 152 3 0.92 EDU (0.06/1); PERS (0.40/0.84); IM (0.36/0.88) Madjar and Ortiz-Walters (2008) USA 136 3 0.71; 0.88; 0.94 EDU (−0.04/1); EDU (−0.06/1); EDU (0.01/1) Madrid and Patterson (2016) Chile 220 4 0.83 EDU (0.15/1); PERS (0.23/0.85); PERS (0.49/0.73); PERS (0.32/0.72) Mannucci and Yong (2018) USA 2070 2 1 EXP (0.14/1); KDIV (0.09/1) McDermid (1965) Bulgaria 58 9 1 EXP (0.19/1); PERS (0.37/1); PERS (0.01/1); PERS (0.19/1); PERS (0.06/1); PERS (0.27/1); CS (0.14/1); CS (0.23/1); CS (0.10/1) McFadyen and Cannella (2004) USA 1038 1 1 EDU (0.20/1) Menon, Bharadwaj, Adidam, and Edison (1999) USA 212 2 1 CS (0.25/1); CS (0.29/1) Miron-Spektor, Ingram, Keller, Smith, and Lewis (2018) USA 135 3 0.87 EDU (−0.03/1); EXP (−0.08/1); CS (0.33/0.80) Moghadam, Beheshtifar, and Mazrae-Sefidi (2012) Iran 204 1 1 PERS (0.37/1) Montani, Battistelli, and Odoardi (2017) Italy 442 2 0.92 EDU (0.15/1); IM (0.46/0.94) Mueller and Kamdar (2011) India 291 3 0.91 EDU (−0.06/1); PERS (0.11/1); IM (0.35/0.87) Mumford et al. (2010) USA 258 5 0.71 CS (0.30/0.91); CS (0.26/0.91); CS (0.28/0.91); CS (0.36/0.91); IM (0.31/0.91) Muñoz-Doyague, González-Álvarez, and Nieto (2008) Spain 53 3 0.80 EXP (0.17/0.89); PERS (0.16/0.92); PERS (0.31/0.93) Mussner, Strobl, Veider, and Matzler (2017) Austria 256 2 0.77 PERS (0.25/0.79); IM (0.19/0.81) Neubert, Kacmar, Carlson, Chonko, and Roberts (2008) Spain 250 3 0.93 CS (0.00/0.92); AFF (0.52/1); PERS (0.51/0.91) Nisula and Kianto (2016) Finland 103 1 0.81 SEF (0.60/0.78) Ng and Feldman (2009) Hong Kong 162 2 0.93 EDU (0.05;1); AFF (0.21/0.87) Noefer, Stegmaier, Molter, and Sonntag (2009) Germany 81 1 0.93 CS (0.03/1) Obstfeld (2005) USA 152 3 1 EDU (0.05/1); EXP (0.36/0.88); EXP (0.23/1) Ohly and Fritz (2010) Germany 136 2 0.96 CS (0.51/0.88); IM (0.48/0.84)ì Oldham and Cummings (1996) USA 171 3 0.90;1;1 PERS (0.12/0.70); PERS (0.27/0.70); PERS (0.00/0.70) Othman (2011) Malaysia 167 4 0.91 AFF (0.18/0.90); AFF (0.22/0.89); AFF (0.20/0.92); AFF (0.20/0.89) Parke, Seo, and Sherf (2015) USA 129 5 0.96 AFF (0.1/0.78); CS (−0.01/0.74); CS (−0.03/0.59); PERS (0.04/0.88); PERS (−0.08/0.79) Peng, Lin, and Baum (2013) Taiwan 34 2 1 PERS (0.28/1); CS (0.40/1) Perry-Smith (2006) USA 97 4 0.91; 1 KDIV (0.31/1); EDU (0.21/1); KDIV (0.10/1); IM (0.20/0.71) Radaelli, Lettieri, Mura, and Spiller (2014) Italy 150 2 0.90 KDIV (0.22 /0.84); IM (0.32/0.83) Rahimi & Allameh (2011) Iran 85 3 1 KDIV (0.65/1); EXP (0.70/1); CS (0.17/1) Rego, Machado, Leal, and Cunha (2009) Portugal 125 9 0.92 EDU (0.21/1); EDU (0.15/1); AFF (0.26/1); AFF (0.19/1); AFF (0.26/1); AFF (0.20/1); AFF (0.14/1); AFF (0.31/1); AFF (0.25/1) Rice (2006) Egypt 202 2 0.71 KDIV (0.44/1); IM (0.27/1) Rodan (2002) France 106 2 1 KDIV (0.26/1); KDIV (0.40/1) Rotolo et al. (2013) Italy 826 3 1 EXP (0.13/1); EXP (−0.24/1); CS (0.10/1) Sacramento, Fay, and West (2013) Sample 1 Portugal 123 2 0.90 EDU (−0.01/1); PERS (0.14/1) Sauermann and Cohen (2010) USA 1707 3 1 IM (0.03/1); IM (0.06/1); IM (0.05/1) Schemmann, Chappin, and Herrmann (2017) Germany 72 1 1 EXP (0.19/1) Schultz and Schreyogg (2013) USA 287 1 1 EXP (0.14/0.78) Schweisfurth (2017) Germany 1103 6 0.75; 0.1 EDU (0.04/1); EDU (0.1/1); CS (0.06/0.80); CS (−0.01/0.80); PERS (−0.03/0.63); PERS (0.21/0.63) Schweisfurth and Herstatt (2015) Germany 54 2 0.91 EXP (0.54/1); CS (0.58/0.88) Scott and Bruce (1994) USA 172 3 0.89 EDU (0.26/1); CS (0.18/0.91); CS (−0.29/0.90) Scratchley and Hakstian (2001) Canada 212 3 0.86 CS (0.26/0.83); CS (0.26/0.85); PERS (0.26/0.81) Sethi, Smith, and Park (2001) USA 141 1 0.80 KDIV (0.08/1) Shalley, Gilson, and Blum (2000) USA 2200 1 1 EDU (0.44/1) Shalley, Gilson, and Blum (2009) USA 1430 4 0.78 CS (−0.23; 0.83); PERS (0.16/0.79); IM (0.28/0.88); IM (0.30.70) Shin, Kim, Lee, and Bian (2012) China 68 3 0.91 CS (0.13/1); PERS (0.21/1); SEF (0.16/0.86) Shin and Zhou (2003) South Korea 290 1 0.95 IM (0.19/0.84) Simmons, Payne, and Pariyothorn (2014) USA 128 2 0.75 EDU (0.17/1); SEF (0.57/0.89) Singh and Fleming (2010) USA 515,816 2 1 KDIV (0.06/1); EXP (−0.01/1) Smith, Albright, and Glennon (1961) USA 331 2 1 EXP (0.52/1); EXP (0.52/1) Smith and White (1965) Germany 156 1 1 PERS (0.17/1) Son, Cho, and Kang (2017) South Korea 163 1 0.98 EDU (−0.13/1) Sosa (2011) USA 609 2 1 KDIV (0.07/1); KDIV (0.01/1) Spanjol, Tam, and Tam (2015) Australia 90 1 0.95 AFF (0.71/0.85) Stea and Pedersen (2017) Denmark 74 1 0.83 IM (0.47/0.88) Stetler and Magnusson (2015) Sweden 409 3 1 IM (0.26/1); IM (0.26/1); IM (0.40/1) Swailes (2000) UK 633 3 1 PERS (0.23/1); IM (−0.12/1); IM (0.14/1) Tai and Mai (2016) Vietnam 309 2 1 PERS (0.61/1); PERS (0.75/1) Thatcher and Brown (2010) USA 172 2 1 KDIV (0.40/1); PERS (0.38/1) Tierney and Farmer (2002) Sample 1 USA 194 4 0.95 EDU (0.03/1); EDU (0.12/1); SEF (0.24/0.87); SEF (0.01/0.85) Tierney and Farmer (2002) Sample 2 USA 502 2 0.96 SEF (0.17/0.83); SEF (0.13/0.77) Tierney and Farmer (2004) USA 140 3 0.96 EDU (0.97/1); EXP (−0.02/1); SEF (0.23/0.76) Tierney and Farmer (2011) USA 237 8 0.93 PERS (. 21/0.80); PERS (0.20/0.86); PERS (0.12/0.80); PERS (0.13/0.86); SEF (0.26/0.74); SEF (0.23/0.81); SEF (0.11/0.74); SEF (0.29/0.81) Tierney, Farmer, and Graen (1999) USA 191 9 0.95;1;1 EDU (0.40/1); EDU (0.17/1); EDU (0.39/1); CS (0.35/0.86); CS (0.01/0.86); CS (0.17/0.86); IM (0.28/0.74); IM (0.13/0.74); IM (0.10/0.74) To, Fisher, and Ashkanasy (2015) Australia 68 2 0.93 AFF (0.42/0.88); CS (0.32/0.74) Tongchaiprasit & Ariyabuddhiphongs, 2016) Thailand 145 2 0.94 EDU (−0.12/1); AFF (0.38/0.88) Tse, To, and Chiu (2018) China 240 2 0.95 EDU (0.02/1); PERS (0.06/0.7) Tucker, Cline, and Schmitt (1967) USA 78 10 1 CS (0.33/1); CS (0.59/1); CS (0.71/1); CS (−0.05;1); CS (0.07/1); CS (0.45/1); CS (0.26/1); CS (0.71/1); CS (0.05/1); CS (0.06/1) Venkataramani, Richter, and Clarke (2014) Spain 214 3 0.8 EDU (0.34/1); PERS (0.21/0.76); IM (0.29/0.88) Wang, Rodan, Fruin, and Xu (2014) USA 844 1 1 KDIV (0.22/1) Wang and Casimir (2007) China 219 1 1 EDU (0.01/1) Wang and Cheng (2010) Taiwan 159 2 0.97 EDU (0.05/1); PERS (0.20/0.81) Williams (2004) USA 208 24 0.78;0.80;0.89;0.75;0.81;0.89;. PERS (0.33/0.82); CS (0.29/0.75); CS (0.08/0.82); CS (0.23/0.93); PERS (0.27/0.82); CS (0.26/0.75); CS (0.09/0.82); CS (0.13/0.93); PERS (0.23/0.82); CS (0.19/0.75); CS (0.05/0.82); CS (0.09/0.93); PERS (0.25/0.82); CS (0.24/0.75); CS (0.10/0.82); CS (0.17/0.93); PERS (0.17/0.82); CS (0.19/0.75); CS (0.02/0.82); CS (0.13/0.93); PERS (0.11/0.82); CS (0.15/0.75); CS (−0.03/0.82); CS (0.12/0.93) Wong & Latkin (2008) Hong Kong 983 1 0.81 IM (0.31/0.81) Wright and Walton (2003) USA 41 3 1 AFF (0.53/0.86); AFF (0.61/0.92); PERS (0.48/0.07) Wu, McMullen, Neubert, and Yi (2008) China 70 1 0.78 PERS (0.04/0.56) Wu, Lee, and Tsai (2012) Taiwan 250 4 0.89 EXP (0.37/0.91); KDIV (−0.03/0.93); CS (0.09/0.89); SEF (0.14/0.91) Yoon, Sung, Choi, Lee, and Kim (2015) South Korea 271 1 0.93 IM (0.09/0.94) Zacher, Robinson, and Rosing (2016) USA 388 3 0.87 AFF (0.42/0.88); CS (0.6/0.85); PERS (0.44/0.85) Zhang and Bartol (2010a) China 367 9 0.88;0.91 EDU (0.05/1); EDU (0.04/1); IM (70/0.88); PERS (0.24/0.77); PERS (0.23/0.77); PERS (0.37/0.82); PERS (0.37/0.82); IM (0.65/0.82); IM (0.66/0.82) Zhang and Bartol (2010b) China 367 3 0.91 IM (0.70/0.88); PERS (0.64/0.86); IM (0.66/0.82) Zhang and Zhou (2014) Sample 1 China 322 3 0.94 EDU (0.19/1); PERS (−0.20/0.80); SEF (0.61/0.79) Zhang and Zhou (2014) Sample 2 China 199 3 0.96 EDU (0.27/1); PERS (−0.06/0.84); SEF (0.39/0.87) Zhang, Chan, Zhong, and Yu (2016) China 311 3 0.90 EDU (0.17/1); AFF (0.66/0.87); PERS (0.92/1) Zhao, Kessel, and Kratzer (2014) China 358 1 0.90 EDU (0.14/1) Zhou (2003) USA 123 2 0.97 EDU (0.30/1); PERS (0.07/0.97) Zhou and George (2001) USA 149 2 0.96 IM (−0.24/0.78); IM (−0.11/0.86) Zhou, Shin, Brass, Choi, and Zhang (2009) China 151 1 0.95 EDU (0.05/1) Zou and Ingram (2013) USA 318 4 1 KDIV (0.10/1); KDIV (−0.13/1); CS (0.10/1); CS (0.44/1) a EDU = Education, EXP = Expertise, KDIV = Knowledge diversity, CS = Cognitve style, PERS = Personality, AFF = Affect, IM = Intrinsic Motivation, SEF = Self-efficacy. 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