G-protein coupled receptor 5C (GPRC5C) is required for osteoblast differentiation and responds to EZH2 inhibition and multiple osteogenic signals

Parisa Dashti, Roman Thaler, John R. Hawse, M. Lizeth Galvan, Bram J. van der Eerden, Andre J. van Wijnen*, Amel Dudakovic*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Osteoblast differentiation is epigenetically suppressed by the H3K27 methyltransferase EZH2, and induced by the morphogen BMP2 and transcription factor RUNX2. These factors also regulate distinct G protein coupled receptors (GPRCs; e.g., PTH1R, GPR30/GPER1). Because GPRCs transduce many physiological stimuli, we examined whether BMP2 or EZH2 inhibition (i.e., GSK126) regulates other GPRC genes in osteoblasts. RNA-seq screening of >400 mouse GPRC-related genes showed that many GPRCs are downregulated during osteogenic differentiation. The orphan receptor GPRC5C, along with a small subset of other GPRCs, is induced by BMP2 or GSK126 during Vitamin C dependent osteoblast differentiation, but not by all-trans retinoic acid. ChIP-seq analysis revealed that GSK126 reduces H3K27me3 levels at the GPRC5C gene locus in differentiating MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, consistent with enhanced GPRC5C mRNA expression. Loss of function analyses revealed that shRNA-mediated depletion of GPRC5C decreases expression of bone markers (e.g., BGLAP and IBSP) and mineral deposition in response to BMP2 or GSK126. GPRC5C mRNA was found to be reduced in the osteopenic bones of KLF10 null mice which have compromised BMP2 signaling. GPRC5C mRNA is induced by the bone-anabolic activity of 17β-estradiol in trabecular but not cortical bone following ovariectomy. Collectively, these findings suggest that GPRC5C protein is a key node in a pro-osteogenic axis that is normally suppressed by EZH2-mediated H3K27me3 marks and induced during osteoblast differentiation by GSK126, BMP2, and/or 17β-estradiol. Because GPRC5C protein is an understudied orphan receptor required for osteoblast differentiation, identification of ligands that induce GPRC5C signaling may support therapeutic strategies to mitigate bone-related disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116866
Early online date7 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

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