Genome-wide Analysis of CpG Island Methylation in Bladder Cancer Identified TBX2, TBX3, GATA2, and ZIC4 as pTa-Specific Prognostic Markers

Raju Kandimalla, Angela Tilborg, Lucie Kompier, Dominique Stumpel, Ronald Stam, CH Bangma VERVALLEN, Ellen Zwarthoff

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Background: DNA methylation markers could serve as useful biomarkers, both as markers for progression and for urine-based diagnostic assays. Objective: Identify bladder cancer (BCa)-specific methylated DNA sequences for predicting pTa-specific progression and detecting BCa in voided urine. Design, setting, and participants: Genome-wide methylation analysis was performed on 44 bladder tumours using the Agilent 244K Human CpG Island Microarray (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Validation was done using a custom Illumina 384-plex assay (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) in a retrospective group of 77 independent tumours. Markers for progression were identified in pTa (n = 24) tumours and validated retrospectively in an independent series of 41 pTa tumours by the SNaPshot meth Measurements: The percentage of methylation in tumour and urine samples was used to identify markers for detection and related to the end point of progression to muscle-invasive disease with Kaplan-Meier models and multivariate analysis. Results and limitations: In the validation set, methylation of the T-box 2 (TBX2), T-box 3 (TBX3), GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2), and Zic family member 4 (ZIC4) genes was associated with progression to muscle-invasive disease in pTa tumours (p = 0.003). Methylation of TBX2 alone showed a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value of 78%, and a negative predictive value of 100%, with an area under the curve of 0.96 (p < 0.0001) for predicting progression. Multivariate Conclusions: We have identified four methylation markers that predict progression in pTa tumours, thereby allowing stratification of patients for personalised follow-up. In addition, we identified CGIs that will enable detection of bladder tumours in voided urine. (C) 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)1245-1256
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Urology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Research programs

  • EMC MM-02-54-03
  • EMC MM-03-24-01
  • EMC MM-03-49-01

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