Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

Aysu Okbay, JP Beauchamp, MA Fontana, JJ Lee, TH Pers, Niels Rietveld, P Turley, GB Chen, V Emilsson, SFW Meddens, S Oskarsson, JK Pickrell, K Thom, P Timshel, Ronald Vlaming, A Abdellaoui, TS Ahluwalia, J Bacelis, C Baumbach, G BjornsdottirJohan Brandsma, MP Concas, J Derringer, NA Furlotte, TE Galesloot, G Girotto, R Gupta, LM Hall, SE Harris, E Hofer, M Horikoshi, JE Huffman, K Kaasik, IP Kalafati, R Karlsson, A Kong, J Lahti, Sven van der Lee, C de Leeuw, PA Lind, KO Lindgren, T Liu, M Mangino, J Marten, E Mihailov, MB Miller, PJ van der Most, C Oldmeadow, A Payton, N Pervjakova, WJ Peyrot, Y Qian, O Raitakari, R Rueedi, E Salvi, B Schmidt, KE Schraut, JX Shi, AV Smith, Raymond Poot, B St Pourcain, A Teumer, G Thorleifsson, N (Niek) Verweij, D Vuckovic, J Wellmann, HJ Westra, JY Yang, W Zhao, ZH Zhu, BZ Alizadeh, Najaf Amin, A Bakshi, SE Baumeister, G Biino, K Bonnelykke, PA Boyle, H Campbell, FP Cappuccio, G Davies, JE De Neve, P Deloukas, I Demuth, J Ding, P Eibich, L Eisele, N Eklund, DM Evans, JD Faul, MF Feitosa, AJ Forstner, I Gandin, B Gunnarsson, BV Halldorsson, TB Harris, AC Heath, LJ Hocking, EG Holliday, G Homuth, MA Horan, JJ Hottenga, PL De Jager, PK Joshi, A Jugessur, MA Kaakinen, M Kahonen, S Kanoni, L Keltigangas-Jarvinen, LALM Kiemeney, I Kolcic, S Koskinen, AT Kraja, M Kroh, Z Kutalik, A Latvala, LJ Launer, MP Lebreton, DF Levinson, P Lichtenstein, P Lichtner, DCM Liewald, A Loukola, PA Madden, R Magi, T Maki-Opas, RE Marioni, P Marques-Vidal, GA Meddens, G McMahon, C Meisinger, T Meitinger, Y Milaneschi, L Milani, GW Montgomery, R Myhre, CP Nelson, DR Nyholt, WER Ollier, A Palotie, L Paternoster, NL Pedersen, KE Petrovic, DJ Porteous, K Raikkonen, SM Ring, A Robino, O Rostapshova, I Rudan, A Rustichini, V Salomaa, AR Sanders, AP Sarin, Heléna Schmidt, RJ Scott, BH Smith, JA Smith, JA Staessen, E Steinhagen-Thiessen, K Strauch, A Terracciano, MD Tobin, S Ulivi, S Vaccargiu, L Quaye, FJA van Rooij, C Venturini, AAE Vinkhuyzen, U Volker, H Volzke, JM Vonk, D Vozzi, J Waage, EB Ware, G Willemsen, JR Attia, DA Bennett, K Berger, L Bertram, H Bisgaard, DI Boomsma, IB Borecki, U Bultmann, CF Chabris, F Cucca, D Cusi, IJ Deary, GV Dedoussis, Cornelia Duijn, JG Eriksson, B Franke, L Franke, P Gasparini, PV Gejman, C Gieger, HJ Grabe, J Gratten, Patrick Groenen, V Gudnason, P van der Harst, C Hayward, DA Hinds, W Hoffmann, E Hyppnen, WG Iacono, B Jacobsson, MR Jarvelin, KH Jockel, J Kaprio, SLR Kardia, T Lehtimaki, SF Lehrer, PKE Magnusson, NG Martin, M McGue, A Metspalu, N Pendleton, BWJH Penninx, M Perola, N Pirastu, M Pirastu, O Polasek, Daniëlle Posthuma, C Power, MA Province, NJ Samani, D Schlessinger, R Schmidt, TIA Sorensen, TD Spector, K Stefansson, U Thorsteinsdottir, Roy Thurik, NJ Timpson, Henning Tiemeier, JY Tung, André Uitterlinden, V Vitart, P Vollenweider, DR Weir, JF Wilson, AF Wright, DC Conley, RF Krueger, GD Smith, Bert Hofman, DI Laibson, SE Medland, MN Meyer, Jiaqi Yang, M Johannesson, PM Visscher, T Esko, PD Koellinger, D Cesarini, DJ Benjamin

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Abstract

Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals(1). Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample(1,2) of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)539-542
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume533
Issue number7604
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Research programs

  • EUR ESE 31
  • EMC MGC-02-13-02
  • EMC MM-01-39-09-A
  • EMC NIHES-01-64-01
  • EMC ONWAR-01-58-02

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