Background: Pathogenic PTEN germline variants cause PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (PHTS), a rare disease with a variable genotype and phenotype. Knowledge about these spectra and genotype-phenotype associations could help diagnostics and potentially lead to personalized care. Therefore, we assessed the PHTS genotype and phenotype spectrum in a large cohort study. Methods: Information was collected of 510 index patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic (LP/P) PTEN variants (n = 467) or variants of uncertain significance. Genotype-phenotype associations were assessed using logistic regression analyses adjusted for sex and age. Results: At time of genetic testing, the majority of children (n = 229) had macrocephaly (81%) or developmental delay (DD, 61%), and about half of the adults (n = 238) had cancer (51%), macrocephaly (61%), or cutaneous pathology (49%). Across PTEN, 268 LP/P variants were identified, with exon 5 as hotspot. Missense variants (n = 161) were mainly located in the phosphatase domain (PD, 90%) and truncating variants (n = 306) across all domains. A trend towards 2 times more often truncating variants was observed in adults (OR = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.5–3.4) and patients with cutaneous pathology (OR = 1.6, 95%CI = 1.1–2.5) or benign thyroid pathology (OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.1–3.5), with trends up to 2–4 times more variants in PD. Whereas patients with DD (OR = 0.5, 95%CI = 0.3–0.9) or macrocephaly (OR = 0.6, 95%CI = 0.4–0.9) had about 2 times less often truncating variants compared to missense variants. In DD patients these missense variants were often located in domain C2. Conclusion: The PHTS phenotypic diversity may partly be explained by the PTEN variant coding effect and the combination of coding effect and domain. PHTS patients with early-onset disease often had missense variants, and those with later-onset disease often truncating variants.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work (L.A.J.H. and J.R.V.) was financially supported by the PTEN Research Foundation . E.R.W. and D.G.E. are supported by the NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre (Grant Reference Number 1215–200074 ). E.T. is supported by Region Stockholm (Grant ID, 2020-500306 DS ). L.R. is supported by the Estonian Research Council (Grant ID PRG471 ).
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