In liver cancer tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Ti-Treg) are potent suppressors of tumor-specific T-cell responses and express high levels of the Treg-associated molecules cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR). In this study, we have evaluated the capacity of GITR-ligation, CTLA-4-blockade and a combination of both treatments to alleviate immunosuppression mediated by Ti-Treg. Using ex vivo isolated cells from individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or liver metastases from colorectal cancer (LM-CRC) we show that treatment with a soluble form of the natural ligand of GITR (GITRL), or with blocking antibodies to CTLA-4, reduces the suppression mediated by human liver tumor-infiltrating CD4+Foxp3+ Treg, thereby restoring proliferation and cytokine production by effector T cells. Importantly, combined treatment with low doses of both molecules exhibited stronger recovery of T cell function compared with either treatment alone. Our data suggest that in patients with primary and secondary liver cancer both GITR-ligation and anti-CTLA-4 mAb can improve the antitumor immunity by abrogating Ti-Treg mediated suppression.
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2015|
This work was supported by grants to DS (Erasmus MC Fellowship) and AP-G (Erasmus MC Grant 2011) from Erasmus