Guided Growth of the Proximal Femur for the Management of the ‘Hip at Risk’ in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

Moritz Lebe, Renée Anne van Stralen, Pranai Buddhdev

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BACKGROUND: Guided growth is frequently used to modify lower-limb alignment in children, and recently temporary medial hemiepiphysiodesis of the proximal femur (TMH-PF) has been used for the management of hips at risk of subluxation in cerebral palsy (CP) patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of TMH-PF in the management of neuromuscular hip dysplasia in children with cerebral palsy.

METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was performed by using PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane databases. Pre- and postoperative radiographic changes of the migration percentage (MP), head-shaft angle (HSA) and acetabular index (AI) were included in a meta-analysis. Secondary outcomes were treatment complication rates, technical considerations and the limitations of this novel technique.

RESULTS: Four studies (93 patients; 178 hips) met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. All three radiographic measurements showed significant changes at a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. Mean changes for MP were 8.48% (95% CI 3.81-13.14), HSA 12.28° (95% CI 11.17-13.39) and AI 3.41° (95% CI 0.72-6.10), with I 2 of 75.74%, 0% and 87.68%, respectively. The serious complication rate was overall low; however, physeal 'growing off' of the screw was reported in up to 43% of hips treated.

CONCLUSION: TMH-PF is an effective and predictable method to treat CP patients with 'hips at risk', and the overall complication rate is low; however, further work is required to identify the best candidates and surgical timing, as well as choice of technique and implant.

Original languageEnglish
Article number609
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 25 Apr 2022

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© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


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