Hawks in the making? European public views on nuclear weapons post-Ukraine

Michal Onderco, Michal Smetana, Tom W. Etienne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


In the past, the European public has not been enthusiastic about nuclear deterrence and the stationing of US American nuclear weapons in Europe. Has the Russian invasion of Ukraine changed that aversion? We conducted a unique study, surveying the same population of respondents at two points in time—in September 2020 and in June 2022. We find that European respondents became much more hawkish after the invasion: nuclear deterrence was viewed more favourably, the willingness to use nuclear weapons increased, and support for the withdrawal of nuclear weapons dropped significantly. The paper draws a number of policy implications from these results.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalGlobal Policy
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 14 Feb 2023

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© 2023 The Authors. Global Policy published by Durham University and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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