Health-Related Quality of Life and Mental Well-Being during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Five Countries: A One-Year Longitudinal Study

Di Long, Gouke J. Bonsel, Erica I. Lubetkin, John N. Yfantopoulos, Mathieu F. Janssen, Juanita A. Haagsma*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)


This study aimed to investigate socioeconomic and health-related determinants and recent life events and their relation to changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mental well-being during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. A web-based survey was administered repeatedly to participants from Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Primary outcome measures were HRQoL (measured by EQ-5D-5L) and mental well-being (measured by WHO-5). Linear regression analyses were performed to estimate the impact of determinants on HRQoL and well-being. In total, 6765 respondents completed the questionnaire at T1 (April–May 2020) and T2 (May–June 2021). Regarding results, 33% showed improved HRQoL at T2, whereas 31% deteriorated. In terms of mental well-being, 44% improved and 41% deteriorated. The greatest deterioration in HRQoL and mental well-being from T1 to T2 was observed with an increasing number of chronic conditions. The effect of negative life events on HRQoL and mental well-being was larger than the effect of positive life events. We conclude that slightly more respondents showed improved rather than deteriorated HRQoL and mental well-being, with some variation by outcome measure and country.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6467
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was funded by the EuroQol Research Foundation (grant number 238-2020RA). The views expressed by the authors in the publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the EuroQol Group.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


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