Health-Related Quality of Life Population Norms for Belize Using EQ-5D-5L

Henry Bailey*, Mathieu F. Janssen, Althea La Foucade, Philip Castillo, Girjanauth Boodraj

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: There has been a growing interest in the use of EQ-5D health outcomes measures in Latin America and the Caribbean. Population norms data provide a benchmark against which clinicians, researchers, and policy makers can compare the health status of patient, treatment, or demographic groups. This study aimed to provide EQ-5D-5L population norms for Belize. Methods: The EQ-5D-5L questionnaire was included in a national survey in Belize in 2014. The survey also captured key demographic variables. EQ-5D-5L health states, EQ-5D visual analog scale (EQ VAS) scores, and EQ-5D-5L index values (based on the Trinidad and Tobago value set) were obtained for key demographic groups in Belize. Results: A representative sample of 2078 respondents completed the survey. The mean index value, EQ VAS score, and ceiling level for Belize were 0.947, 82.6, and 67.8%, respectively. Similar to other Caribbean countries, Belizeans self-reported relatively high EQ VAS scores and ceiling levels compared with non-Caribbean regions. Men reported generally higher health status than women, health status declined as age rises, and the dimensions with the highest burden were pain/discomfort and mobility. Conclusions: This study provides researchers and practitioners in Belize with tools to use EQ-5D-5L. Users can apply the EQ VAS scores and EQ-5D-5L states presented herein as reference values. Until an EQ-5D-5L value set is created for Belize, the Trinidad and Tobago index values can be applied to Belizean-reported EQ-5D-5L states, which can then be compared with the index values presented in this study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-52
Number of pages8
JournalValue in Health Regional Issues
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors received no financial support for this research.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 ISPOR–The professional society for health economics and outcomes research


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