We examined whether health-related quality of life (HRQoL) predicts long-term survival in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) independent of established prognostic risk factors. In 2004, data on 711 consecutive patients with PAD undergoing vascular surgery were collected from 11 hospitals in The Netherlands. After 1 year, patients were contacted to complete the EuroQol Questionnaire (EQ-5D), of which 503 complied. HRQoL assessed by the EQ-5D was divided into tertiles (i.e. poor, intermediate and good HRQoL). Mortality was subsequently assessed 3 years after surgery. Of the 503 patients, 55 (11%) patients died during follow-up. Mortality was 21% in patients with poor HRQoL, 8% in patients with intermediate HRQoL, and 5% in patients with good HRQoL. Patients with poor HRQoL (HR = 5.4; 95% CI 2.3-12.5) had a worse survival compared to patients with a good HRQoL, after adjusting for established prognostic factors. In conclusion, the study indicates that poor HRQoL predicts long-term survival in patients with PAD, and provides prognostic value above established risk factors.