Introduction The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has increased substantially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and adapting health service delivery models to address this remains a challenge. Many patients with NCD seek private care at different points in their encounters with the health system, but the determinants and outcomes of these choices are insufficiently understood. The proposed systematic review will help inform the governance of mixed health systems towards achieving the goal of universal health coverage. This protocol details our intended methodological and analytical approaches, based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Methods and analysis Following the PRISMA approach, this systematic review will develop a descriptive synthesis of the determinants and outcomes of private healthcare utilisation for NCDs in LMICs. The databases Embase, Medline, Web of Science Core Collection, EconLit, Global Index Medicus and Google Scholar will be searched for relevant studies published in English between period 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2022 with additional searching of reference lists. The study selection process will involve a title-abstract and full-text review, guided by clearly defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A quality and risk of bias assessment will be done for each study using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required because this review is based on data collected from publicly available materials. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at related scientific events.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported jointly by the Non-Communicable Disease Department and Health System Financing and Governance Department of the World Health Organization (Grant number 202758205). The content of this study is the sole responsibility of the authors and does not represent the official views of World Health Organization.
© 2023 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.