Hepatocellular carcinoma: Dutch guideline for surveillance, diagnosis and therapy

Ferry Eskens, KJ van Erpecum, KP de Jong, OM van Delden, HJ Klumpen, Kees Verhoef, PLM Jansen, MAAJ van den Bosch, Alejandra Mendez Romero, J Verheij, E Bloemena, Rob de Man

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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rare in the Netherlands, even though the incidence has increased quite sharply in recent years. Standard treatment options consist of surgery, orthotopic liver transplantation, radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) and systemic therapy with sorafenib. The consensus-based Dutch HCC guideline, established in 2013, serves to guide surveillance, diagnosis and treatment options: Surveillance should be performed by ultrasound at six-month intervals in well-defined cirrhotic patients and in selected high-risk hepatitis B carriers; A nodule > 1 cm in cirrhotic patients with arterial hypervascularity and venous or delayed phase washout at four-phase CT or MRI scan establishes the diagnosis of HCC; In patients with HCC without underlying cirrhosis, resection should be considered regardless of tumour size; In cirrhotic HCC patients, tumour stage, severity of underlying cirrhosis, and performance status determine treatment options. The algorithm of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system should be followed; Patients with Child-Pugh A-B cirrhosis (CP < 8 points) and performance status 0-2 are candidates for any active treatment other than transplantation; In early stage HCC (BCLC stage 0 or A, compensated cirrhosis without portal hypertension) surgical resection, liver transplantation, or radiofrequency ablation should be considered; In intermediate stage HCC (BCLC stage B) TACE and/or radiofrequency ablation should be considered; In advanced stage HCC (BCLC stage C) sorafenib should be considered. Conclusion: The Dutch HCC guideline offers advice for surveillance, diagnosis and treatment of HCC.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)299-304
Number of pages6
JournalNetherlands Journal of Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Research programs

  • EMC MM-03-32-04
  • EMC MM-03-47-11
  • EMC MM-04-20-02-A

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