Conclusions: Although organ preservation can be achieved with chemoradiation protocols for laryngeal or pharyngeal cancers, salvage surgery is accompanied by high complication rates. Objectives: To determine the rate of complications associated with salvage surgery after chemoradiation for laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers. Methods: A multicenter retrospective study was performed of 24 patients treated with total laryngectomy combined with total or partial pharyngectomy between 1995 and 2004 who had previously been treated with chemoradiation. The main outcome measures were early and late complication rates. Quality of life analysis was determined by two questionnaires. Results: The complication rate after salvage surgery was 92% in the direct postoperative period. The most frequent complication was pharyngocutaneous fistula formation. Narrowing of the esophagus and tracheostoma were the most common late sequelae. The quality of life, measured at least 2 years after salvage surgery, showed a social dysfunctioning.