High-Frame-Rate Volumetric Porcine Renal Vasculature Imaging

Luxi Wei*, Geraldi Wahyulaksana, Maaike te Lintel Hekkert, Robert Beurskens, Enrico Boni, Alessandro Ramalli, Emile Noothout, Dirk J. Duncker, Piero Tortoli, Antonius F.W. van der Steen, Nico de Jong, Martin Verweij, Hendrik J. Vos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Objective:

The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and imaging options of contrast-enhanced volumetric ultrasound kidney vasculature imaging in a porcine model using a prototype sparse spiral array. 

Methods: 

Transcutaneous freehand in vivo imaging of two healthy porcine kidneys was performed according to three protocols with different microbubble concentrations and transmission sequences. Combining high-frame-rate transmission sequences with our previously described spatial coherence beamformer, we determined the ability to produce detailed volumetric images of the vasculature. We also determined power, color and spectral Doppler, as well as super-resolved microvasculature in a volume. The results were compared against a clinical 2-D ultrasound machine. 

Results: 

Three-dimensional visualization of the kidney vasculature structure and blood flow was possible with our method. Good structural agreement was found between the visualized vasculature structure and the 2-D reference. Microvasculature patterns in the kidney cortex were visible with super-resolution processing. Blood flow velocity estimations were within a physiological range and pattern, also in agreement with the 2-D reference results. 

Conclusion:

Volumetric imaging of the kidney vasculature was possible using a prototype sparse spiral array. Reliable structural and temporal information could be extracted from these imaging results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2476-2482
Number of pages7
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Volume49
Issue number12
Early online date11 Sept 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was part of the research program Vernieuwingsimpuls—Vidi 2017 (Project No. QUANTO-16572), which is (partly) financed by the Dutch Research Council (NWO). This work was also partially supported by the Moore4Medical project funded by the ECSEL Joint Undertaking under Grant No. H2020-ECSEL-2019-IA-876190 and by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (PRIN 2020) under Grant No. 20205HFXE7 .

Funding Information:
The authors thank Henry den Bok (TU Delft) for the design and implementation of electronics, Boudewine Ossenkoppele (TU Delft) for her help on probe characterization, Mihai Strachinaru (EMC) for preliminary imaging experiments, Joaquim Bobi I Gibert (EMC) and Annemarie Verzijl (EMC) for their support during the animal experiments and Jason Voorneveld (EMC) for helpful discussions and code sharing. This work was part of the research program Vernieuwingsimpuls—Vidi 2017 (Project No. QUANTO-16572), which is (partly) financed by the Dutch Research Council (NWO). This work was also partially supported by the Moore4Medical project funded by the ECSEL Joint Undertaking under Grant No. H2020-ECSEL-2019-IA-876190 and by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (PRIN 2020) under Grant No. 20205HFXE7. The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors

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