High Prevalence of Long COVID in Common Variable Immunodeficiency: An Italian Multicentric Study

Annalisa Villa, Cinzia Milito, Carla Maria Deiana, Renato Finco Gambier, Alessandra Punziano, Helena Buso, Patrick Bez, Gianluca Lagnese, Giulia Garzi, Giulia Costanzo, Gloria Giannuzzi, Chiara Pagnozzi, Virgil A.S.H. Dalm, Giuseppe Spadaro, Marcello Rattazzi, Francesco Cinetto*, Davide Firinu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Downloads (Pure)


The long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection represent a relevant global health problem. Long COVID (LC) is defined as a complex of signs and symptoms developed during or after SARS-CoV-2 infection and lasting > 12 weeks. In common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients, we previously reported higher risk of hospitalization and death during SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as prolonged swab positivity and frequent reinfections. The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of LC in an Italian cohort of CVID patients. We used a translated version of the survey proposed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to collect data on LC. In the enrolled cohort of 175 CVID patients, we found a high prevalence of LC (65.7%). The most frequent LC symptoms were fatigue (75.7%), arthralgia/myalgia (48.7%), and dyspnea (41.7%). The majority of patients (60%) experienced prolonged symptoms, for at least 6 months after infection. In a multivariate analysis, the presence of complicated phenotype (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.88-5.03; p = 0.015), obesity (OR 11.17, 95% CI 1.37-90.95; p = 0.024), and female sex (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.09-3.89; p = 0.024) significantly correlated with the development of LC. In conclusion, in this multicenter observational cohort study, we demonstrated that CVID patients present an increased prevalence of LC when compared to the general population. Improved awareness on the risk of LC in CVID patients could optimize management of this new and alarming complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number59
Pages (from-to)59
Number of pages1
JournalJournal of Clinical Immunology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 6 Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2024.


Dive into the research topics of 'High Prevalence of Long COVID in Common Variable Immunodeficiency: An Italian Multicentric Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this